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You have reached "THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE", Journal of Mushroom Cultivation - OnLine.  This page is supported by donations.  If you have benefited from visiting here, and would like to see other people benefit like you have, please make a donation to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523 in any amount.  Without your help, this public service cannot continue.  These are Electronic Issues and do not have the photographs that the Hard Copy Issues have.  You must subscribe to receive Original Issues.  Subscription information is within the Journals.  slp/fmrc

 Some words my run on into each other due to transfer from word document unto this site.

#101 “TMC” Copyright 2014    

ISSN: 1078-4314

For January 2014                            $15.00

                                     

              The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)

     The Official Mushroom Journal for the “Independent

               Mushroom Grower’s Network” (IMGN)

                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

To learn more about IMGN, see www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html, or write to FMRC to get complete information on this old and unique mushroom association…many valuable benefits.

___ This is a "RESTRICTED" Issue.  It contains all spore prints and photographs.

___  This is a "NON-RESTRICTED" Issue.  It contains no mushroom spore prints.

___  This is a "REPRINT"/"Photo Copy" Issue.  It may not contain prints or pictures.  Published by:          Florida Mycology Research Center (FMRC)

P.O. Box 18105, Pensacola, FL  32523-8105

1.850.327.4378      FloridaMycology@cs.com

www.mushroomsfmrc.com

EDITORS:          You the reader

                   Over 7,000 IMGN Members 

          Marshall E. Deutsch:  Articles Taken from "The Bulletin Of

                                    The Boston Mycological Club” and other recent references                                

                                to fungi encountered during the editor’s quotidian activities

                  Cooking Editor: Robin Arnold

                  Chief Editor:  Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC

It is official from the USDA:  The 2011/2012 USA Mushroom Cash Crop was over $1 Billion!!!  There were only 279 registered growers!!!  Maybe you should check out “IMGN” and start getting your share!

http://www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html

The world’s only and longest running color Mushroom Journal (Since 1984) that comes with actual “Live Mushroom Spore Print Samples” affixed inside (held safe inside a small sealed plastic envelope).    

                                   C O N T E N T S

TMC Journal Subscriptions and other Journal Information.............................01

Calocybe indica (The Milky Mushroom), The Cultivation of............................02

Condensation on Petri Dish Lids.....................................................................02

Notes on Pasteurization and Sterilization………………………………………..02

Amanita phalloides found................................................................................02

HEPA Filters And Cloning...............................................................................03

Mushrooms Make Their Own Breeze..............................................................03

Microscopes....................................................................................................04

Mycology in the Media....................................................................................04

     Strange Mushrooms In Iraq.......................................................................04

     Fungi and Shale Oil...................................................................................04

     Spider Fungus...........................................................................................05

     Salamanders attacked by fungus..............................................................05

Cooking With Mushrooms..............................................................................06

How To Place An Ad In TMC.........................................................................07

CONGRATULATIONS TO Winners of FREE TMC Subscriptions.................07

Culture Flask..................................................................................................08

FREE Mushroom Spore Print Sample S0341, Coprinus comatus.................08

Mushroom Quiz..............................................................................................08

Color Photograph Lepiota americana............................................................09

           

                          AA

Mushroom Journal Subscriptions:  If you would like to order a subscription to “THE MUSHROOM CULTURE”, you may send request and payment of $30.00 made out to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola, FL. 32523, for one year. 

Copyright Information: This Journal is Copyrighted under International Law, and all said laws apply.  Any material that finds its way into this Journal, and it has already been copyrighted elsewhere, retains original Copyright.  Authors and photographers who submit material in this Journal are not restricted from using their work, or the sale thereof.  Persons may reprint or transmit this document, only in its complete and original form.  No parts, articles, photographs, or any other partial pieces may be removed from this document.  If you have any questions about reprinting or retransmitting, call 1.850.327.4378 and ask for Stephen L. Peele.  Copies of this document can be given away freely for academic or information purposes.  Any sale, placement, or display in any media that involves the transfer of money, of document, or parts of, is a violation of Copyright.  Authors of articles and emails are solely responsible for their contents and may not represent the views or opinions of FMRC.  
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Subscriptions:   The electronic version of "The Mushroom Culture" Electronica, The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC) can be read freely at www.mushroomsfmrc.com under “TMC Journals”.  The current Issue will be posted 2 to 3 weeks after the Hard Copies are mailed out to subscribers.   "The Mushroom Culture" physical issue (Hard Copy) that contains actual spore print samples and color photographs, that is mailed to you in a thick plain brown envelope, has the following subscription rates:  One year’s subscription $30.00 (outside the USA  $50.00), Two year’s subscription $50.00 (outside the USA  $90.00), Three year’s subscription $70.00 (outside the USA $130.00).  "Lifetime" subscription is $1,000.00 (outside the USA $2,000.00).  College, University, and other educational library requests may subscribe "Lifetime" for $750.00 (outside the USA $1,750.00). 
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The Scheduling Dispatch Of This Journal:  This Journal's "Hard Copy" is mailed thru the second week of the Issue's Publication month/date.  This is usually the first Monday of the said month.  Because games and prizes offered in this Journal are restricted to postal mail only, the Electronic Issue is not released until 2 to 3 weeks after the postal mailing of the "Hard Copy".  This is done to prevent unfair advantage if both were released at the same time.  To view the Electronic Issue, go to www.mushroomsfmrc.com then, click on “TMC Journals”.  The FREE Download is made available by donations.  To help keep this mycological free service available to all, you may send your donation in any amount to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523.  TMC is a quarterly publication, 4 times a year.  Because many articles are copy/pasted from emails, spelling and grammar errors may exist.  They are left “as is” to show proof of original document. 
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How Many Issues Do I have left on my "TMC" Hard Copy Subscription?  Check the number right after your first name or above the business address on the mailing label affixed to the brown envelope your Journal arrives in.  This is how many issues are left on your current subscription.  Also see "Culture Flask":  If your culture flask has a RED Contaminant in it...this is your last issue!  Please renew.
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Know The Mushroom Laws In Your Area:  Some readers who receive this Journal live in areas where no mushroom laws exist.  Others, like those in the USA, must be aware of laws that forbid the possession and cultivation of mushrooms that contain controlled substances.  Psilocybe cubensis is an example of an illegal mushroom in the USA.  As articles are done on an International basis, always keep in mind the laws on these said type mushrooms in your own specific area.  Questions?  Check with the local law from a pay phone.

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Mushroom Identification over the Phone… a public service provided by FMRC to Poison Control Centers and Emergency Rooms all over the world.  Since 1972, the Florida Mycology Research Center has offered this free service 24 hours a day to all Poison Control Centers and Emergency Rooms.  Please take the time to contact your local Poison Control Center or local hospital and make sure they are aware of this service.  Many times, the identification of a mushroom involved in a mushroom poisoning can mean the correct treatment…the wrong treatment could be bad for the victim.  Call them and give our "Mushroom ID" phone number…1-850-327-4378. 

                  #101 TMC January 2014    Page 01  Copyrighted Material

Calocybe indica (The Milky Mushroom), The Cultivation of:

If you have experience growing Oyster Mushrooms, you are a jump ahead.  These mushrooms grow on what Oyster Mushrooms grow on and many other available media like corn cobs.  It does well on hard wood sawdust and blocks of sawdust.  It does well on many different straws that are pasteurized.  Fresh Straw or dry, should be cut in small one inch size and soaked.  Hold mycelium run at 80 to 85 F.  Keep in the Dark.  Keep Relative Humidity above 82%.  When fully taken, which should happen by 20 days, case with one inch of casing mixture:

75% Potting Soil and 25% Sand

Adjust pH to 7.8-7.9

Pasteurize in Pressure Cooker 15 lb. for ONE hour

Start Fresh Air Exchange and 12 Hour Light daily.

In about 10 days after casing, the mycelium will appear on the surface.  

These changes start Primordia.  This Pinning should occur in 3 to 5 days.

They are needle shaped.  They mature in another 7 days. 

                              Notes on Pasteurization and Sterilization:

These are methods used to kill Contaminants

Pasteurization:

One easy way:

Boil Water in a large, wide mouth pan or drum.

Pack presoaked Straw in pillow covers.

Hold under water for One Hour.

Sterilization:

This is when item is placed in Pressure Cooker at 15 lbs. for ONE hour.

This mycelium is fragile to colder temperatures.  If temperature drops to 40 F or below, it will die.  Store Cultures at 55 F to extend storage.  

Best way to get a live culture is to find some fresh ones at your local market.  Then, make a culture clone.  If they don't have it, ask them to get some in.  If you find someone who sells the Live Culture, they should not ship it in the winter months.  FMRC does not have spores available at this time.

I saw a price of $29.00 per pound for these mushrooms on 11/10/2013 at Cavete, Philippines.  slp/fmrc

                                         ------------------------------------------

                                       Condensation on Petri Dish Lids

One of the best ways to stop this is to store your Petri Dishes upside down.  This also keeps the agar moist longer.  I always store like this.  slp/fmrc

                                        --------------------------------------------

                                         Amanita phalloides

       Perhaps the most deadliest mushroom of all, found in New York City

I have received the following information:

Vivien Tartter, who has just recently started hunting wild mushrooms, found and photographed an

Amanita phalloides the week of Oct. 21, 2013.  She found the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides)

                           #101 TMC January 2014    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

in Van Cortlandt Park, in the Bronx, NYC!  This is a mid to late fall mushroom in this area - and eating just one can be lethal!  We are trying to map its appearance and spread in NYC. It was not that long ago, they were only found in California, under Oak Trees.  Now they have spread and are being found under other kinds of trees.  Many think this mushroom got its start back in the 1940’s when California bought thousands of Oak Saplings from Europe.  It is thought that this mushroom’s mycelium was on the roots of these young trees.  slp/fmrc 

                                      ----------------------------------------

                                      HEPA Filters And Cloning

When preparing a sterile piece of flesh from a mushroom found out in the wild, the air currents actually blow contaminants all around that are on the mushroom.  When holding the mushroom and moving it all around, this aids even more contaminants being knocked off and put in the air currents.  This will many times lead to having a contaminated piece of clone tissue.  If you have any opened Agar Petri Dishes or Sterile Grain Jars, and a wild mushroom is in the area, only bad things can happen.  A Transfer Box may prove to be better when making clone tissue transfer because of the lack of moving air.  There are some good ideas posted at www.mushroomsfmrc.com.  Just click "Mushroom Research Papers" off of the Main Menu and scroll on down to "How To Build An Inoculation/Transfer" Box .  There are some other good tips there too.

                                     -------------------------------------

Mushrooms Make Their Own Breeze

To Help Spread Spores

Mushrooms can make a slight spore-dispersing breeze to spread their genetic material even if the air is calm. Katherine Harmon reports
Mushrooms have to scatter their spores to make little mushrooms. And we've long assumed that they rely on a friendly breeze for spore spreading. But a new study shows that mushrooms can make their own spore-casting wind. Fluid mechanics researchers trained high-speed video cameras on common Shiitake and oyster mushrooms. The scientists discovered that the mushroom spores floated off even when the air was calm. They enlisted mathematical models to solve the mystery. Turns out that before the spore dispersal, the mushrooms released water vapor. This moisture cooled the air around the 'shroom, causing a convective dynamic that got the air moving. Just this faint fungal breeze was enough to carry the spores away from the parent. The findings were presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics in Pittsburgh. [Emilie Dressaire, et al., " Control of Fluidic Environments by Mushrooms "] This discovery suggests that mushrooms aren't simply in a race to produce the most spores. Evolution also engineered a good way to spread them.  Sent in by David West.

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                     #101 TMC January 2014    Page 03  Copyrighted Material

                                                       Microscopes

A Post Made:  It does seem like the lenses need cleaned or something. It's kind f cloudy looking and some specs that don't go away when looking through it. But I did get to look at some spores, pretty cool.

The "cloudy", if when on higher power, is caused because those lens are not really high grade lens.  To get the good higher power lens, you have to put out the money because of their costs.  A power of 1,000 X and up, is best for spores.  This will let you view all the important spore features and allow any micrometer (devise used to measure spores) you might be using, to be used properly.  Any spots that can't be cleaned out, must be inside.  You might have to removed and wipe the other side.
Here is a good way to get a really good scope, for a cheaper price:
Call your local veterinarian, doctor's office, or hospital, and ask them who does the work on their microscopes when they need repairing.  Then, call this person.  They many times will have microscopes that the bill has not been paid and it has not been picked up.  If he is tired of waiting, he will want to sell the scope to recover is labor and parts.  There is your good deal!  Good scope hunting. 

Hope this helps.  And, if you, or anyone, wants to take some good microscopy photographs:

Set your camera for normal "automatic".  Then, put the camera lens right up to the eyepiece.  You have to move the camera around slightly to get the picture lined up.  Hold camera very still or use a tripod.  Takes great pictures that look like they were taken using expensive equipment.  slp/fmrc

                                    ------------------------------------------

    Mycology in the Media

Marshall E.  Deutsch

                In Natural History for July/August, we are cautioned against stepping off the beaten path when out hiking in the western United States, even when the area looks like bare dry ground. This area may not have turned into a sandbox because it consists of a crust formed by a living community, of which “the most common inhabitants include cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi, and algae.” And in  Z Magazine for the same time period, an Iraqi physician in Basra complains that “It is like Chernobyl here: the genetic effects are new to us; the mushrooms grow huge. . .”

                But Science for 16 August cheers us up with news that two genes have been cloned that offer resistance to “Ug99, a particularly devastating strain of wheat stem rust fungus. . . which could potentially threaten food security.” Conventional scientific procedures identified these genes, but another article in this issue describes a Facebook game which debuted 12 August and which enlists players to match nucleotide sequences to a reference genome. It is hoped that players of the game will help to identify genetic variants of ash trees which are associated with resistance of the trees to the ash dieback fungus, Chalara fraxinea, or genetic variants of the fungus which are associated with its lethality.

                And here’s what we learn from Science for 23 August: “The long-held view of the origin of shale oil—a buried leaf cooking for 70 million years under pressure from mud and sand—might leave out a vital component of the process: fungi. A new experiment suggests that endophytic fungi—fungi living symbiotically inside plants—can generate hydrocarbons as they eat away at their decaying hosts. Gary Strobel, a plant microbiologist says that fungi could have speeded up oil production by tens of millions of years.” Use of a promising organism has already been patented. And, of course, fungi can speed up food production, as Scientific American for September notes in only one short article (entitled “super dirt”) in this special food issue.                                                                                                                                                             

                           #101 TMC January 2014    Page 04  Copyrighted Material 

 In The Boston Globe for September 2, we learn of a video shot by a Hampshire College student which tells of (shows?) a fungus that infects “cellar spiders” and subsequently pops out of their leg joints and “makes this crazy marshmallow pom-pom fuzz.”  And from Global Times for September 4, via Larry Millman, we learn of and see pictures of “Buddhist statue spouts miracle mushrooms.” The statue is made of camphorwood.  

                Nor are salamanders safe from fungi. NewScientist (NS) for 7 September tells of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, which has almost wiped out fire salamanders in the Netherlands. It kills them by eating through their skin and exposing them to lethal bacterial infections. Cryptococcus neoformans, on the other hand, does the actual killing of its (sometimes human) prey by itself. Live Science for September 10 describes how this yeast reproducesl  unisexually from two identical parents. What’s the point? In the process, some of the descendants end up with extra copies of some chromosomes and this can result in traits such as pigmentation and drug resistance differing from those of the parents.

                In NS for September 14, a reader expresses concern over white bathroom grouting turning black. The editor and no fewer than 3 other respondents chime in on how to deal with Aspergillus niger. Need I say more? Less widely known is how to deal with Chalara, which causes ash [tree] dieback. BBCNews for 12 September describes one way to start, which is to map the ash tree genome and look for the genes which convey resistance to this pathogen. Much more difficult than finding a 3 kg Bolete in a Polish forest, as reported by BBC News on 26 September! And very unlikely to lead to a dangerous blunder such as that made by Arizona Highways for October, which listed Amanita muscaria as being deemed edible. When this was reconsidered by the editors, they removed the issue from newsstands.

                Under “Findings,” Harper’s Magazine for October lists a number of disasters attributable to fungi, including “The widespread presence of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus fungi in tropical wheat stores was increasing the viral loads of the HIV-positive” but no explanation of why such a connection exists. Geomyces and cryptosporidiosis are mentioned in the same paragraph, but less cryptically.

                Which brings us to an article in The New York Times (Times) for October 3, which describes commercial matsutake picking in Oregon. Larry Millman, who called it to our attention, points out that the article fails to note that the reason the bottom has dropped out of this market is that the Japanese no longer mythologize the matsutake, but simply regard it as a tasty mushroom. Norway, however, is showing increasing respect for mycology. To quote from an email from Larry, “Leif Ryvarden, the world’s most eminent polypore expert, has just been awarded a Knighthood in Norway.” Larry says that he thinks awards such as this given to mycologists automatically make Norway a more civilized country than the United States. He has also explored the interface between mycology and government in his recent book (reviewed elsewhere in this issue) in which he writes that “Russians may be eating more mushrooms than anyone else, but they’re also eating more of the wrong mushrooms. This has gotten worse in recent years. With so-called democracy, shabby identification skills have become available to all.”

                Chemical & Engineering News for October 21 reports on the commercialization of the mycelium-based packaging which I panned in a recent issue. Could I have been wrong and steered you away from a profitable investment? We’ll see.

                But back to judging countries by examining how they relate to mushrooms. Anent an article on Greenland’s fungus-illustrated stamps in Spore Prints for September, Larry observes that “Greenlanders are perhaps the world’s most mycophobic people (they think mushrooms are used as a soap by a monstrous creature called a qivitoq) which makes it rather ironic that they manufacture so many mushroom stamps.”

                Both Marcia Jacob and a member whose initials are LM called our attention to an article on the front page of The Wall Street Journal for October 31 which makes a big deal about the fact that Estonian mushroom collectors don’t give away their sites. Not like us!

                Finally we note that “First farming fungi found in soil” heads an article in NS for 12 November. It describes the relationship between Morchella crassipes and Pseudomonas putida. Apparently the fungus first feeds the bacteria and then eats them.      Marshall E. Deutsch

                     #101 TMC January 2014    Page 05  Copyrighted Material

MUSHROOM COOKING TIPS......

          3 cups fresh is approximately 1 1/2 oz. dried.

Hydration times vary per mushroom; usually around 15-20 minutes. Using warm liquid speeds the process.

Other varieties of mushrooms may be substituted in the recipes; it will merely change the resulting flavor.

Never over-indulge when trying a new variety.

Store unused dry mushrooms in a jar that can be sealed, away from sun and moisture.

Store any left over hydrated mushrooms in a paper bag, (after squeezing out any excess water), put in the refrigerator and use within a few days.

Squeeze out excess water after hydrating.

Water used to hydrate can often have much of the mushroom flavor; store in freezer until use as gravy or soup stock.

Try a variety by itself or with sautéed onions as a side-dish. Sometimes the flavor of the mushroom can get lost when added to more complicated mixtures, such as spaghetti sauce. Trying them first may tell you if you would add them to a more complex recipe.

          Invite a friend over and impress them with your culinary talents!

MUSHROOM COVERED DEER

Ingredients:

6 pieces of venison tenderloin, 1/2 oz. Porcini (King Bolete) *, 1 tsp. onion powder

1 tsp. onion powder, 1/4 tsp. ground black pepper, Pinch of salt.

Powder Porcini in coffee grinder. Mix all ingredients, except the tenderloins, in a large zip-lock baggie. Add venison and fill the baggie slightly with air so that the pieces get fairly well covered. Sauté in olive oil until desired readiness. Serve with fresh salad.  * Shiitake powder may be substituted.

                     #101 TMC January 2014    Page 06  Copyrighted Material

Advertising in The Mushroom Culture is just good rifle shot advertising.  Plus, when it is posted up for download at our website, www.mushroomsfmrc.com, hundreds of thousands of people see it!  Pretty good deal, when you think about it.  If its Mushroom Related, and you want to sell it, try this:

                             How  To  Place  An  Ad  In  “TMC”

For 1 full year (4 issues)…Full page $500.00, ½ page $250.00, ¼ page $125.00.

For one time (1 issue)…Full page $200.00, ½ page $100.00, ¼ page $50.00, 40 word ad $20.00.

                                             -----------------------------------

Books Available Only From FMRC’s Book Store………And Now It Is On Line For FREE Viewing

                  Mushroom Books You Never Knew Existed
For a complete list of FMRC’s publications, videos, and a listing of all the Back Issues of "TMC" with a summary of each ones contents, see the FMRC “MAIN” Catalog posted On Line at our website www.mushroomsfmrc.com then click “Catalogs” off of our Main Menu.  Then just scroll down and you will see all we have to offer.  Also, check out our “Store”. The down load or copy/paste is free.          -------------------------------------------

                 Submitting Spore Samples for This Journal

Submitting spore samples for Journal entries, entitles you to one year’s free subscription to the "Physical" Hard Copy issues published by FMRC.  Only select prints that you are sure of identification.  Do not submit samples you cannot identify.  "TMC" and "TEO" ("THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC) and "TEONANACATL", The International Journal Of Psychoactive Mushrooms TEO), both published by FMRC, remain the only "color" mushroom journals that come with mushroom spore print samples.  This is mainly due to reader collection and the fact it is quite troublesome to place the said samples into the Journals.  To this date, I know of no one else who has tried taking on this task.  Mushroom prints should be taken on paper.  Any dark colored spores can be taken on white paper.  Light colored or white spores

should be taken on a dark colored paper.  This will ensure contrast and make the spores easy to see.  Seven to nine complete sheets should be submitted.  Place

and affix (with staple or tape) cover sheet over each sheet of prints.  Send date and where collected.  Wild edibles make the best submissions for the "TMC" Journal.  If you wish to submit a controversial type, like Psilocybe cyanescens,

these said types may be submitted (or we will forward) to "TEONANACATL", The International Journal of Psychoactive Mushrooms (TEO).  Because these issues have this unique feature of mushroom spore print samples to aid in the correct identification of mushrooms collected out in the wild, they have a cutoff of 3,000 subscribers.  This makes original Hard Copy back issues of "TMC" and "TEO" rare and the most valuable to collect.

CONGRATULATIONS TO THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE
Because of your input to this issue of "TMC", you are awarded a year’s free subscription.  We all thank you for your very helpful input: David West for
”Mushrooms Make Their Own Breeze”, Mark Forhand for correct “MQ” Answer, Color Photograph of Lepiota americana by Joel Hensley, KY, FREE spore samples by R. Arnold, and Dennis Forth for correct "MQ". Answer.

                  #101 TMC January 2014    Page 07  Copyrighted Material              

CULTURE  FLASK…….. Is this your last Issue on Subscription?            

                                                                

For Physical "TMC" HARD COPY Subscriptions That Contain Spore Samples
IF YOUR CULTURE FLASK HAS A "RED" CONTAMINANT IN IT,

THIS IS YOUR LAST ISSUE!  Send $30 to renew your subscription ($50 US Dollars for Out Of Country), for another year's subscription.  The "RED" contaminant is your only reminder, other than your mailing label saying "00" issues left after your first name.  As we value your support and interests, please send payment now while it is on your mind.  This way, "TMC" can continue and you will never miss an issue.  After all, it is your Journal.

                               ------------------------------------------------

Mushroom Spore Print sample For #101 TMC JAN 2014                                                          "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"  
Coprinus comatus, “The Shaggy Mane” 
EDIBILITY –  Choice Good Edible.  Free print samples provided by Robin Arnold.  Collected 10/5/13          FMRC’s Catalog Number ………………………#SO341

How To Win A Year’s Free Subscription To "TMC"
If you see any article about mushrooms, past or present, and you think others may like to read about it, send it in.  If it is used in "TMC", you get the free subscription.  If you find a large stand of a particular species of mushroom, and are able to collect 7 to 10 good full sheets of spore prints (enough to place samples in "TMC"), send them in.  If they are accepted, they will be placed in

"TMC", and you get the free subscription.  If you send anything in that has to do with mushrooms, and it is used (Mail Call letters do not apply), you get the free subscription.  If you do not want your name mentioned, please state so and we will honor your wishes.  Free subscriptions are physical issues with spore print samples and 4" X 6" color photographs.

                                                      ---------------------------------------

MUSHROOM QUIZ  "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of this Journal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  No phone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by 1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail).  The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to this Journal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in the following edition (unless you state "Not to publish your name").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with your knowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #100 "TMC"What does the term “Toroid” mean?

Last Issue’s Answer:  A bulge or knot.  

Winner with Correct “MQ” Answer:  Mark Forhand

"MQ" For This Issue #101:  What is the Scientific Name for the “Horse Mushroom”?       

                               

   

                #101 TMC January 2014    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)
        Color photograph for #101, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                      January 2014                                  

                                   Photograph Copyrighted by FMRC  

                                         Lepiota americana

                         Photograph taken by Joel Hensley, KY.

                                                  

   

                  #101 TMC January 2014    Page 09  Copyrighted Material

                      Florida  Mycology  Research  Center (FMRC)

                         POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523 USA

This copy belongs to:  _____________________________

Please follow the indicated routing and return:

  Mycology Department

  Botany Department

  Biology Department

  Science & Mathematics Department

  Research & Development

  Purchasing

  Library

  Other_________________________________________

  To the desk of:__________________________________

                     #101 TMC January  2014

                                             

#100 “TMC” Copyright 2013    

ISSN: 1078-4314

For October 2013                            $15.00

     THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE                            

             The Journal of MushroomCultivation (TMC)

    The Official Mushroom Journal for the “Independent

              Mushroom Grower’s Network”(IMGN)

                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

To learn more about IMGN, see www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html,or write to FMRC to get complete information on this old and unique mushroomassociation…many valuable benefits.

___ This is a "RESTRICTED" Issue. It contains all spore prints and photographs.

___  This is a"NON-RESTRICTED" Issue.  Itcontains no mushroom spore prints.

___  This is a"REPRINT"/"Photo Copy" Issue.  It may not contain prints or pictures.  Published by:          FloridaMycology ResearchCenter (FMRC)

P.O. Box 18105, Pensacola, FL  32523-8105

1.850.327.4378      FloridaMycology@cs.com

www.mushroomsfmrc.com

EDITORS:          Youthe reader

                   Over 7,000 IMGN Members 

         Marshall E. Deutsch:  Articles Takenfrom "The Bulletin Of

                                    The BostonMycological Club” and other recent references                                

                                to fungi encountered during theeditor’s quotidian activities

                  Cooking Editor: Robin Arnold

                  Chief Editor:  Stephen L.Peele, Curator FMRC

It is official from the USDA:  The 2011/2012 USA Mushroom Cash Crop was over$1 Billion!!!  There were only 279 registeredgrowers!!!  Maybe you should check out“IMGN” and start getting your share!

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The world’s only and longestrunning color Mushroom Journal (Since 1984) that comes with actual “LiveMushroom Spore Print Samples” affixed inside (held safe inside a small sealedplastic envelope).    

                                             CO N T E N T S

TMC Journal Subscription and other JournalInformation……………01

Mycology In The Media……………………………….………………….02

     Pendulous lichens…………………………………………………….01

     Psilocybin use and its history………………………………………..02

     Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiaethe official microbe...02

     Irish potato crop……………………………………………………….01

     Treating frogs with a bacterium……………………………………...01

     Truffle’s black magic flavor…………………………………………..01

     Dr. Pollock’s Death……………………………………………………02

     Cooking With Mushrooms……………………………………………04

     How Mushroom Spores Are SpreadAbout The World……………05

Antidote For Amanitamuscaria and Muscarine………….…..………05

How To Place An AdIn TMC……………………………………………06

Submitting SporesTo This Journal……………………………………..06

CONGRATULATIONSto FREE Subscription Winners………………07

Culture Flask……IsThis Your Last Issue………………...……………07

FREE Mushroom SporePrint Sample SO26………………………….07

MushroomQuiz…………………………………………………………..08

Color Photograph ofLactariusindigo ……………………….……….09

                                               aa

    

 

 

Mushroom Journal Subscriptions:  If you would like to order a subscriptionto “THE MUSHROOM CULTURE”, you may send request and payment of $30.00 made outto FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola,FL. 32523, for one year. 

CopyrightInformation: This Journal is Copyrighted underInternational Law, and all said laws apply.  Any material that finds itsway into this Journal, and it has already been copyrighted elsewhere, retainsoriginal Copyright.  Authors and photographers who submit material in thisJournal are not restricted from using their work, or the sale thereof.  Personsmay reprint or transmit this document, only in its complete and originalform.  No parts, articles, photographs, or any other partial pieces may beremoved from this document.  If you have any questions about reprinting orretransmitting, call 1.850.327.4378 and ask for Stephen L. Peele.  Copiesof this document can be given away freely for academic or informationpurposes.  Any sale, placement, or display in any media that involves thetransfer of money, of document, or parts of, is a violation of Copyright.  Authors of articles and emails are solelyresponsible for their contents and may not represent the views or opinions ofFMRC.  
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Subscriptions:   The electronic version of "The MushroomCulture" Electronica, The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC) can beread freely at www.mushroomsfmrc.comunder “TMC Journals”.  The current Issuewill be posted 2 to 3 weeks after the Hard Copies are mailed out tosubscribers.   "The Mushroom Culture"physical issue (Hard Copy) that contains actual spore print samples and colorphotographs, that is mailed to you in a thick plain brown envelope, has thefollowing subscription rates:  One year’s subscription $30.00 (outsidethe USA  $50.00), Two year’s subscription $50.00 (outside theUSA  $90.00), Three year’s subscription $70.00 (outside the USA$130.00).  "Lifetime" subscription is $1,000.00 (outside the USA$2,000.00).  College, University, and other educational library requestsmay subscribe "Lifetime" for $750.00 (outside the USA $1,750.00). 
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The SchedulingDispatch Of This Journal:  This Journal's "Hard Copy" is mailed thru the second week ofthe Issue's Publication month/date.  This is usually the first Monday ofthe said month.  Because games and prizes offered in this Journal arerestricted to postal mail only, the Electronic Issue is not released until 2 to3 weeks after the postal mailing of the "Hard Copy".  This isdone to prevent unfair advantage if both were released at the same time.  To view the Electronic Issue, go to www.mushroomsfmrc.com then, click on “TMCJournals”.  The FREE Download is madeavailable by donations.  To help keepthis mycological free service available to all, you may send your donation inany amount to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola,FL 32523.  TMC is aquarterly publication, 4 times a year. Because many articles are copy/pasted from emails, spelling and grammarerrors may exist.  They are left “as is”to show proof of original document. 
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How Many Issues Do I have left on my "TMC" Hard CopySubscription?  Check the number right after your first name or abovethe business address on the mailing label affixed to the brown envelope yourJournal arrives in.  This is how many issues are left on your currentsubscription.  Also see "Culture Flask":  If your cultureflask has a RED Contaminant in it...this is your last issue!  Pleaserenew.
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Know The Mushroom Laws In Your Area:  Some readers who receive thisJournal live in areas where no mushroom laws exist.  Others, like those inthe USA,must be aware of laws that forbid the possession and cultivation of mushroomsthat contain controlled substances.  Psilocybecubensis is an example of an illegal mushroom in the USA.  As articles are done onan International basis, always keep in mind the laws on these said typemushrooms in your own specific area.  Questions?  Check with the locallaw from a pay phone.

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Mushroom Identification over the Phone… a public service provided byFMRC to Poison Control Centersand Emergency Rooms all over the world.  Since 1972, the Florida MycologyResearch Centerhas offered this free service 24 hours a day to all Poison ControlCenters and EmergencyRooms.  Please take the time to contact your local Poison ControlCenter or local hospitaland make sure they are aware of this service.  Many times, theidentification of a mushroom involved in a mushroom poisoning can mean thecorrect treatment…the wrong treatment could be bad for the victim.  Callthem and give our "Mushroom ID" phone number…1-850-327-4378. 

                      #100 TMC October 2013    Page 01  CopyrightedMaterial

                                                   Mycology in the Media

Marshall E. Deutsch

                                                                                                                                                                             In an article entitled “Mining the Boreal North,” AmericanScientist for March-April presents information so interesting that Ishouldn’t have missed mentioning it in last quarter’s column. It describes theconflict between the native Sámi of Scandinavia and Swedish timber companieswhose removal of older spruce forest deprived reindeer of the pendulous lichenwhich provided the latter with winter food. It also tells how smoke fromsmelters “contained heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, which were capturedby lichen and then accumulated in reindeer and the people who ate them.”

               But that’s not the only reference to pendulous lichens I should have includedin my last column. Natural History for April described old-man’s-beardlichens in Nepal anddescribes the same lichen on the shoreof Lake Superior as being“an ethereal light-green lichen” which is “very sensitive to air pollution.”

               Psilocybin use and its history are discussed in NYU Alumni Magazine’sSpring issue in an article promising publication of the results of an ongoingstudy of psilocybin’s use in treating cancer-related anxiety. And AmericanLaboratory’s contribution to mycology in its May issue is the revelationthat the electron micrograph on its April cover was of air dried green breadmold, while Natural History for the month presents more evidence thatthe “historic spread of [Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, (Bd)]has been linked to global trade in frogs [particularly Xenopus laevis,which can survive a Bd infection] and the subsequent  releaseof many in the wild.”  Science for 10 May reports the same story.

               Finally some official recognition for a fungus! Chemical & EngineeringNews (C&EN) for May 13 reports that the Oregon House ofRepresentatives has unanimously passed a resolution to make brewer’s yeast, Saccharomycescerevisiae the official microbe of the state. Then again, The Weekfor May 17 manages to have a full-page discussion of “The ecosystem inside you”with many references to bacteria but none to fungi. This is more than compensatedfor by two articles on the web. LiveScence for 22 May focuses on ourfungal companions (particularly those on our feet) and Nature.com for 22May gives a glimpse of the true role played by fungi: “Eleven core-body and armsites were dominated by fungi of the genus Malassezia . . .By contrast,three foot sites—plantar heel, toenail and toe web—showed high fungaldiversity.”

               Laura Reiner calls our attention to a web article on 21 May describing howscientists have recently sequenced the genome of the strain of Phytophthorainfestans which ravaged the Irish potato crop between 1845 and 1852. Thiswas accomplished using dried potato leaves which had been preserved in aherbarium since 1847.

               Using probiotics to prevent disease seems more advanced for frogs than forpeople. American Scientist for May-June reports that treating frogs witha bacterium called Janthinobacterium lividum reliably protected themfrom chytridiomycosis. The bacterium produces violacein, which inhibits chytridfungal growth.    

               The June Smithsonian loaded with fungal references. Therein, we learnthat India has ceased usinggrenades containing a very hot pepper known as Bhut Jolokia against protestersin Kashmir because the powdered chili is proneto fungal rot. Elsewhere in the issue, Mimi Sheraton muses on the enhancementof wild mushrooms with butter or horseradish cream and avers that  “Theonly way to really grasp and remember the [black Perigord] truffle’s blackmagic flavor and exquisitely overripe, vaguely evil aroma is at least once tobite into one without any enhancement other than the kiss of butter or baconand brandy that were brushed on before the truffle was wrapped in parchment andplaced in a metal pan to be roasted under white ashes”. She emphasizes thatthis must be done with Tuber melanosporum rather than white Albatruffles.

               Later in the same issue we encounter “Yeasts of the Southern Wild” andbuttermilk drops, which are doubly dependent on fungi, while a book reviewnotes that the untimely death of Lord Carnarvon following his disturbance ofKing Tutankhamen’s tomb was more likely to have

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

been caused by a fungus found in batguano than by evil spirits. The untimely death of impatiens plants can also beblamed on a fungus according to The Boston Globe for June 12, whichnotes a warning by state officials that “Impatiens downy mildew…infects theflowers and causes them to die, but does not affect other types of plants orflowers... . . The first sign of infection are leaves that appear slightlyyellow or off-color, with small, white powder-like spores on the underside ofthe leaves.”

               The Week for June 14 doesn’t mention fungi in a piece about why frogsand other amphibians are disappearing, but does discuss our fungal inhabitantsin part as follows: “Researchers recently set out to map our fungi, anddiscovered that our feet harbor more than 100 types of fungi, 80 of which liveon our heels alone. Our head and trunk, by contrast are dominated by a singlegenus of fungus called Malassezia, which can cause dandruff. On average,two to 32 types of fungi reside on other areas of the body, including thehands, elbows, thighs and groin. Most of that fungi [sic] is harmless and mayeven protect us from invading microbes that cause diseases or fungal infectionslike athlete’s foot.”

               If you were interested in getting rid of these friendly fungi, you might haveto do for yourself what the Ecuadorean government is doing for frogs. Accordingto NewScientist (NS) dated 15 June, they are collectingamphibians and keeping them in temperature-controlled fungus-free “life rafts.”The same issue describes the use of fungi for packaging material as wasdescribed in The New Yorker for May 20 and criticized in a separatearticle in this Bulletin. The criticisms don’t apply to using fungi topackage people (i.e., build domiciles) as carried out by Richard Schiffman,described in Slate for June 23 and called to our attention by LauraReiner.

               And, if you’re interested in fighting your fungal symbionts, you may beinterested in C&EN for June 10 wherein is described a way ofmodifying amphotericin B to make it less toxic to you. Slime molds, however,are so intelligent, that it might be wiser not to fight them, but to takeadvantage of their intelligence, as described in NS dated June 22,wherein we learn that Physarum polvcephalum, in addition to finding theshortest paths between nutrients, can function as a memristor, a variableresistor whose resistance can be set by the application of a suitable voltageand which “remembers” the setting when the voltage is turned off.

               Marcia Jacob calls our attention to an article in the Wall Street Journalfor June 27 which describes a popular videogame in Japan that features growingmushrooms, and includes a dancing mushroom. The featured mushrooms are not theones familiar to BMC members,  but are more than 200 characters which arevariants of the nameko, a slimy but very popularmushroom.       

               Science for 28 June publishes a correction to a previous depiction of apartial modern tree of life. A fungus (yeast) retains its place as a primaryancestor of multicellular creatures. And NS for 29 June describesdo-it-yourself science projects of some readers. These include “collectingwild mushrooms and catching the spores on agar plates to try to grow spawn fromthem.”

               I find it hard to picture caribou subsisting on lichen, even lichen danglingfrom tree branches, but National Wildlife for June/July provides theeven harder-to-picture description of musk oxen digging through snow “to get totheir food source—lichens growing on rocks beneath the snowcover.”                                                                    

               A note in the July CAP Today suggests (to me, anyway) that carrying a UVlamp might help in identifying fungi. It certainly does help in identifyingfungal infections of fingernails and toenails, which, when irradiated withultraviolet light can be identified “by their tubular or annular shapes withfluorescence surrounding them.”

Harper’s magazine for Julyhas it all in an article on the mysterious death of “Steven Pollock, aphysician and pioneering mycologist,” who was an acquaintance of Gary Lincoff.The article also contains a reference to a mysterious tape recording referredto by Paul Stamets and the author’s analysis of possible clues on this tape tothe circumstances of Pollock’s death. Paul Stamets pops up again in Discovermagazine for July, which was called to our attention by Joel

           #100 TMC October 2013    Page 03  CopyrightedMaterial

Kershner.  An articletherein contains an interesting and detailed explanation of Paul’s many ideason mycorestoration and tells of how he “trained [i.e., selectively bred} Metarhiziumanisopliae, which kills termites and carpenter ants when its spores aresprayed on them directly,” so that it lagged in spore production and could begrown on rice, which would attract ants that carry it back to their nest. Heused the infected rice to rid his house of the ants.

               Reading the book The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, I kept wishing fora photograph of the wife so I could judge for myself whether I might make thesame mistake. The Discover article doesn’t suffer from this error andshows Stamets wearing a hat in a sidebar entitled “The Man Who Mistook HisMushroom for a Hat.” It tells how the spongy layer of Fomes fomentariuscan be processed into a warm, feltlike fabric, as well as being useful as afire starter under the name “amadou.” And a third reference to hats (a hattrick?) occurs in NS for 6 July, wherein a reader states that herhusband has a hat made of bracket fungus, which he bought in Hungary.

               Jean Palmer sends us a Smithsonian web item from July 17 which recountsthe debates over fossil organisms known as Prototaxites and illustrates theauthor’s slant with its title: “Long Before Trees Overtook the Land, Earth wasCovered by Giant Mushrooms,” but presents other possibilities which explainthese fossils. Which brings us to The  Week for July 19, wherein itis explained to us that “artichoke oysters” on a menu were made “by frying upoyster mushrooms and presenting them on artichoke leaves topped with ‘caviar’made from kelp,” and that a “magical buffet” in Nanjing featured fungus soupand salted duck. 

               As for aspiration, rather than oral ingestion, of molds, NS for 20 Julyinforms us that the Jubillee line, the youngest of the London Underground linesis “mouldier than the much older Central and  Bakerloo lines.” But thisdoes not seem to be a threat to health, unlike the spores which are spreadingcoccidioidomycosis at an alarming rate in the SouthwestU.S.A., according to a report in The Week for July 26. Andthe mushroom in a BBC Asia News report dated 28 July and called to ourattention by Larry Millman may turn out to be a cause for celebration. It wasfound by villagers in China’sJianshui County and weighed more than 15kilograms and measured nearly a meter in diameter.

               Chytrid fungus shows up again in the July-August American Scientist,wherein we learn that carriers of this fungus which is wiping out previouslyunexposed populations of frogs have been found in the United States, as well as in Africa.  And Mother Jones for the same time period reports that when Cyndi Lauperstopped by the office of Rep. Jared Polis last spring, he served her some ofthe Colorado-crafted High Country Kombucha he keeps on hand. I apologize if youalready knew this.    

               Harper’s for August contains an article entitled “Gaboxadol,” which isthe name of a derivative of muscimol, which is a compound found in Amanitamuscaria. The article is an unintended (I guess) case study in wildspeculation and self-medication based on this wild speculation. The authorsurvived to write the article. On the other hand, Science for 2 Augustdoesn’t betray its name by pretending to competently discuss the playing ofharps, but provides us with insights on the war between plants and their fungalpathogens. “Plant surface receptors. . .  sense fungal chitin oligomers,which are basic components of fungal cell walls, and thereby trigger immunedefenses against the fungus. The fungi, in turn, have evolved molecularcountermeasures . . .  [such as] a fungal effector protein, Ecpj6, whichis secreted by the leaf mold Cladosporium fulvum and provides a meansfor the pathogen to hide from the host.” Also, the same motif which is acomponent of the plant surface receptors exists in dimeric form in fungi, whereit serves to hide chitin from the plant’s immune responses. 

               The New Yorker dated August 12 & 19 contains an article on thesearch for the cause of BEN (Balkan endemic nephropathy), a kidney disease andthe many blind alleys down which researchers were led before concluding that afungal toxin called ochratoxin A was the apparent cause.

                   #100 TMC October 2013    Page 04  CopyrightedMaterial

               During a bit of time travel, I have picked up a copy of American Scientistfor September-October. Therein we learn of and are shown “beautiful,gravity-defying structures can form when water freezes under the rightconditions.” One of these structures is known as hair ice, which “is related tothe presence of a fungus [in dead wood]. . . waste gases produced as the fungusdecomposed the wood formed pressure that aids in pushing water out of thewood’s thin channels and so to the surface, where organic material in the wateraids in rapid freezing.”

                                      Cooking WithMushrooms

Dijon Chicken with Mushrooms

4 boneless skinless chicken breast halves

2 tablespoons flour (with salt and pepperadded)

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

11/2 tablespoon butter

1 medium onion, chopped

11/2 cup fresh or hydrated Maitake,Oyster or Shiitake mushrooms, thickly sliced

1/2 cup heavy cream

1 tablespoon fresh parsley, chopped

1 tablespoon Dijon mustard

1 tablespoon lemon juice

Pound breasts until 1/4" thick. Coatwell with the flour mixture. Heat oil over medium heat. Add chicken and sautéabout 8 minutes, turning once. Remove and set aside, save juice. Add butter tofry pan and increase heat to high. Add onion and mushrooms. Sauté about 6-8minutes. Reduce heat to low. Add cream, parsley, mustard and lemon juice. Bringto a boil stirring constantly. Add juices from chicken into cream mixture. Poursauce over chicken and serve. A nice wild rice mix goes well as a side dish.Also Chardonnay..........as usual.

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                #100 TMC October 2013    Page 05  Copyrighted Material

             HowMushroom Spores Are Spread About The World

A Posthttp://shroomotopia.net/index.php?showtopic=21449#entry246533 by the Real Mr. G....he posts that Psilocybe cubensis spores were brought to Floridafrom Cubaby cattle swimming ashore and having the spores in their stomachs.

Facts about Mushroom Spores:

When mushroom spores are picked up by jet steams, they arespread all over the Earth's atmosphere. They cover the entire Earth.  Ifthe species of mushroom has been around for the last 100 or 1,000 years (whichis usually the case), it has had enough time to be spread everywhere around theEarth.  The fact is, Psilocybe mexicana sporescover the entire Earth, even all about the North and South Poles.  But, you do not see them there because all ofthe conditions needed for them to fruit, do not exist.  Now if a subtropical Island, which has neverhad cattle on it, suddenly has cattle brought to it, and now meets therequirements for Psilocybe mexicana having plenty of cattle dung (and all otherrequirements), there is a good chance you will see this mushroom.  The cattle or the people did not need tobring spores, they were already there. The only thing missing was the cattle. 

These same facts hold true for Psilocybe cubensis.  The spores were always there.  There just were not proper conditions forthem to fruit.  Once cattle wereintroduced, the spores could grow and produce mushrooms.  Mushroom spores do not need cattle (or theirstomachs), or people to spread them about.......they already exist in the windall over the world.  Do you really thinkthat the wind could not blow mushroom spores from Cubato Florida?  Do you really think that without people orcattle moving from Cuba to Florida, there would have never been Psilocybe cubensis sporesin Florida?  I have done articles and posts on this"urban legend" for many years and yet some are still spreading falseinformation on how mushroom spores travel. Now you know.  slp/fmrc

                            -------------------------------------------------

                Antidote For Amanita muscaria and Muscarine

I answered to this post at another mushroom forum:

"I'm told belladonna is the antidote to these mushrooms (Amanita muscaria) - someone must behaving a laugh at all those doctors who think the mushroom is even trippierthan it is."

It just so happens, Atropine is the antidote for Muscarine. It, a long timeago, worked its way onto Internet under "What to do about MushroomPoisoning". It even sets on many Veterinarian search's, and has goodresults with certain pets, more so than with humans. Thing is, unless you havedigested a mushroom that holds Muscarine, Atropine does no good whenadministered. It actually can make the patient's condition much worse. Amanitamuscaria is named because of its Muscarine content. One large mushroomcan bring about "drools", dehydration, and sit you down some placeyou do not like being. I have never seen any documented proof that someone diedspecifically from the Amanita muscaria mushroom. Somespecies of Inocybe hold high amounts of Muscarine and they can cause death. Ithink in these cases, a doctor may decide to use Atropine. So, if you there areno signs of Muscarine, do not use Atropine. Atropine will have no effect on Phalloidin,the deadly compound in Deadly Amanita like A. phalloides.
                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 06  CopyrightedMaterial
 

Nowsaying belladonna is the antidote for this mushroom Amanita muscaria, wasinteresting to me. I was wondering where this information came from. If youcould, I would like to receive it. Thing is, Atropine is extracted from"Atropa belladonna" and also Datura stramonium L.  And you are right. These products can be verypowerful and deliver a good punch to the person who takes them. That's a goodreason for not wanting to get an Atropine treatment if not needed.

Year's ago, I got an email from someone who had a book, something like"Odd Cures and Antidotes. He said when he looked up Muscarine, it said theantidote was Atropine, When he looked up Atropine, the antidote was Muscarine.
This is taken from #46 TEO Nov. 2013 Issue. Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC

Advertising in The Mushroom Culture is just good rifle shotadvertising.  Plus, when it is posted upfor download at our website, www.mushroomsfmrc.com, hundreds of thousands ofpeople see it!  Pretty good deal, whenyou think about it.  If its MushroomRelated, and you want to sell it, try this:

                             How  To Place  An  Ad In  “TMC”

For 1 full year (4 issues)…Full page $500.00, ½ page$250.00, ¼ page $125.00.

For one time (1 issue)…Full page $200.00, ½ page $100.00, ¼page $50.00, 40 word ad $20.00.

                                            -----------------------------------

Books Available Only From FMRC’s Book Store………AndNow It Is On Line For FREE Viewing

                  Mushroom BooksYou Never Knew Existed
For a complete list of FMRC’s publications, videos, and a listing of all theBack Issues of "TMC" with a summary of each ones contents, see theFMRC “MAIN” Catalog posted On Line at our website www.mushroomsfmrc.comthen click “Catalogs” off of our Main Menu. Then just scroll down and you will see all we have to offer.  Also, check out our “Store”. The down load orcopy/paste is free.          -------------------------------------------

                 Submitting Spore Samplesfor This Journal

Submitting spore samples for Journal entries, entitles you to one year’sfree subscription to the "Physical" Hard Copy issues published byFMRC.  Only select prints that you are sure of identification.  Donot submit samples you cannot identify.  "TMC" and"TEO" ("THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal Of MushroomCultivation (TMC) and "TEONANACATL", The International Journal OfPsychoactive Mushrooms TEO), both published by FMRC, remain the only"color" mushroom journals that come with mushroom spore printsamples.  This is mainly due to reader collection and the fact it is quitetroublesome to place the said samples into the Journals.  To this date, Iknow of no one else who has tried taking on this task.  Mushroom printsshould be taken on paper.  Any dark colored spores can be taken on whitepaper.  Light colored or white spores

should be taken on a dark colored paper.  This will ensurecontrast and make the spores easy to see.  Seven to nine complete sheetsshould be submitted.  Place

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 07  CopyrightedMaterial

and affix (with staple or tape) cover sheet over each sheet ofprints.  Send date and where collected.  Wild edibles make the bestsubmissions for the "TMC" Journal.  If you wish to submit acontroversial type, like Psilocybe cyanescens,

these said types may be submitted (or we will forward) to"TEONANACATL", The International Journal of Psychoactive Mushrooms(TEO).  Because these issues have thisunique feature of mushroom spore print samples to aid in the correctidentification of mushrooms collected out in the wild, they have a cutoff of3,000 subscribers.  This makes originalHard Copy back issues of "TMC" and "TEO" rare and the mostvaluable to collect.

CONGRATULATIONS TO THE FOLLOWINGPEOPLE
Because of your input to this issue of "TMC", you are awarded ayear’s free subscription.  We all thank you for your very helpful input: ColorPhotograph of Lactariusindigo andFREE spore samples by R. Arnold, and Dennis Forth for correct "MQ".Answer,

CULTURE FLASK…….. Is this your last Issueon Subscription?            

                                                                 

For Physical "TMC" HARD COPYSubscriptions That Contain Spore Samples
IF YOUR CULTURE FLASK HAS A "RED" CONTAMINANT IN IT,

THIS ISYOUR LAST ISSUE!  Send $30 to renew yoursubscription ($50 US Dollars for Out Of Country), for another year'ssubscription.  The "RED"contaminant is your only reminder, other than your mailing label saying"00" issues left after your first name.  As we value your support and interests,please send payment now while it is on your mind.  This way, "TMC" can continue andyou will never miss an issue.  After all,it is your Journal.

                              ------------------------------------------------

Mushroom Spore Print sample For #100 TMCOCT 2013                                                          "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"  
Tylopilus felleus 
EDIBILITY –  Inedible.  Free print samples provided by Robin Arnoldto help identify this mushroom.          

FMRC’s Catalog Number…………………………………………………………#SO26

How To Win A Year’s Free SubscriptionTo "TMC"
If you see any article about mushrooms, past or present, and you think othersmay like to read about it, send it in.  If it is used in "TMC",you get the free subscription.  If you find a large stand of a particularspecies of mushroom, and are able to collect 7 to 10 good full sheets of sporeprints (enough to place samples in "TMC"), send them in.  Ifthey are accepted, they will be placed in

"TMC", and you get the freesubscription.  If you send anything in that has to do with mushrooms, andit is used (Mail Call letters do not apply), you get the freesubscription.  If you do not want your name mentioned, please state so andwe will honor your wishes.  Free subscriptions are physical issues withspore print samples and 4" X 6" color photographs.   

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

                   MUSHROOM QUIZ "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of thisJournal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  Nophone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail). The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to thisJournal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in thefollowing edition (unless you state "Not to publish yourname").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with yourknowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #99 "TMC"What is a “Paddock Stool”?

Last Issue’s Answer:  An oldEnglish common name for some Bolete.  

WINNER with first correct answer:  Dennis Forth

"MQ" For This Issue #100:  What does the term “Toroid” mean?     

                                       

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                #100 TMC October 2013    Page 09  CopyrightedMaterial

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation(TMC)
       Color photograph for #100, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                     October 2013                                  

                                   Photograph Copyrightedby FMRC  

                                            Lactarius indigo

                                    Photographby Robin Arnold        

   

                                        

        

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 10  CopyrightedMaterial

                      Florida  Mycology  Research  Center (FMRC)

                         POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523 USA

This copy belongs to:  _____________________________

Please follow the indicated routing andreturn:

  Mycology Department

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                    #100 TMC October  2013

                                             

#100 “TMC” Copyright 2012    

ISSN: 1078-4314

For October 2013                            $15.00

                                    

             The Journal of MushroomCultivation (TMC)

    The Official Mushroom Journal for the “Independent

              Mushroom Grower’s Network”(IMGN)

                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

To learn more about IMGN, see www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html,or write to FMRC to get complete information on this old and unique mushroomassociation…many valuable benefits.

___ This is a "RESTRICTED" Issue. It contains all spore prints and photographs.

___  This is a"NON-RESTRICTED" Issue.  Itcontains no mushroom spore prints.

___  This is a"REPRINT"/"Photo Copy" Issue.  It may not contain prints or pictures.  Published by:          FloridaMycology ResearchCenter (FMRC)

P.O. Box 18105, Pensacola, FL  32523-8105

1.850.327.4378      FloridaMycology@cs.com

www.mushroomsfmrc.com

EDITORS:          Youthe reader

                   Over 7,000 IMGN Members 

         Marshall E. Deutsch:  Articles Takenfrom "The Bulletin Of

                                    The BostonMycological Club” and other recent references                                

                                to fungi encountered during theeditor’s quotidian activities

                  Cooking Editor: Robin Arnold

                  Chief Editor:  Stephen L.Peele, Curator FMRC

It is official from the USDA:  The 2011/2012 USA Mushroom Cash Crop was over$1 Billion!!!  There were only 279 registeredgrowers!!!  Maybe you should check out“IMGN” and start getting your share!

http://www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html

The world’s only and longestrunning color Mushroom Journal (Since 1984) that comes with actual “LiveMushroom Spore Print Samples” affixed inside (held safe inside a small sealedplastic envelope).    

                                             CO N T E N T S

TMC Journal Subscription and other JournalInformation……………01

Mycology In The Media……………………………….………………….02

     Pendulous lichens…………………………………………………….01

     Psilocybin use and its history………………………………………..02

     Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiaethe official microbe...02

     Irish potato crop……………………………………………………….01

     Treating frogs with a bacterium……………………………………...01

     Truffle’s black magic flavor…………………………………………..01

     Dr. Pollock’s Death……………………………………………………02

     Cooking With Mushrooms……………………………………………04

     How Mushroom Spores Are SpreadAbout The World……………05

Antidote For Amanitamuscaria and Muscarine………….…..………05

How To Place An AdIn TMC……………………………………………06

Submitting SporesTo This Journal……………………………………..06

CONGRATULATIONSto FREE Subscription Winners………………07

Culture Flask……IsThis Your Last Issue………………...……………07

FREE Mushroom SporePrint Sample SO26………………………….07

MushroomQuiz…………………………………………………………..08

Color Photograph ofLactariusindigo ……………………….……….09

                                               aa

    

 

 

Mushroom Journal Subscriptions:  If you would like to order a subscriptionto “THE MUSHROOM CULTURE”, you may send request and payment of $30.00 made outto FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola,FL. 32523, for one year. 

CopyrightInformation: This Journal is Copyrighted underInternational Law, and all said laws apply.  Any material that finds itsway into this Journal, and it has already been copyrighted elsewhere, retainsoriginal Copyright.  Authors and photographers who submit material in thisJournal are not restricted from using their work, or the sale thereof.  Personsmay reprint or transmit this document, only in its complete and originalform.  No parts, articles, photographs, or any other partial pieces may beremoved from this document.  If you have any questions about reprinting orretransmitting, call 1.850.327.4378 and ask for Stephen L. Peele.  Copiesof this document can be given away freely for academic or informationpurposes.  Any sale, placement, or display in any media that involves thetransfer of money, of document, or parts of, is a violation of Copyright.  Authors of articles and emails are solelyresponsible for their contents and may not represent the views or opinions ofFMRC.  
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Subscriptions:   The electronic version of "The MushroomCulture" Electronica, The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC) can beread freely at www.mushroomsfmrc.comunder “TMC Journals”.  The current Issuewill be posted 2 to 3 weeks after the Hard Copies are mailed out tosubscribers.   "The Mushroom Culture"physical issue (Hard Copy) that contains actual spore print samples and colorphotographs, that is mailed to you in a thick plain brown envelope, has thefollowing subscription rates:  One year’s subscription $30.00 (outsidethe USA  $50.00), Two year’s subscription $50.00 (outside theUSA  $90.00), Three year’s subscription $70.00 (outside the USA$130.00).  "Lifetime" subscription is $1,000.00 (outside the USA$2,000.00).  College, University, and other educational library requestsmay subscribe "Lifetime" for $750.00 (outside the USA $1,750.00). 
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The SchedulingDispatch Of This Journal:  This Journal's "Hard Copy" is mailed thru the second week ofthe Issue's Publication month/date.  This is usually the first Monday ofthe said month.  Because games and prizes offered in this Journal arerestricted to postal mail only, the Electronic Issue is not released until 2 to3 weeks after the postal mailing of the "Hard Copy".  This isdone to prevent unfair advantage if both were released at the same time.  To view the Electronic Issue, go to www.mushroomsfmrc.com then, click on “TMCJournals”.  The FREE Download is madeavailable by donations.  To help keepthis mycological free service available to all, you may send your donation inany amount to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola,FL 32523.  TMC is aquarterly publication, 4 times a year. Because many articles are copy/pasted from emails, spelling and grammarerrors may exist.  They are left “as is”to show proof of original document. 
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Know The Mushroom Laws In Your Area:  Some readers who receive thisJournal live in areas where no mushroom laws exist.  Others, like those inthe USA,must be aware of laws that forbid the possession and cultivation of mushroomsthat contain controlled substances.  Psilocybecubensis is an example of an illegal mushroom in the USA.  As articles are done onan International basis, always keep in mind the laws on these said typemushrooms in your own specific area.  Questions?  Check with the locallaw from a pay phone.

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Mushroom Identification over the Phone… a public service provided byFMRC to Poison Control Centersand Emergency Rooms all over the world.  Since 1972, the Florida MycologyResearch Centerhas offered this free service 24 hours a day to all Poison ControlCenters and EmergencyRooms.  Please take the time to contact your local Poison ControlCenter or local hospitaland make sure they are aware of this service.  Many times, theidentification of a mushroom involved in a mushroom poisoning can mean thecorrect treatment…the wrong treatment could be bad for the victim.  Callthem and give our "Mushroom ID" phone number…1-850-327-4378. 

                      #100 TMC October 2013    Page 01  CopyrightedMaterial

                                                   Mycology in the Media

Marshall E. Deutsch

                                                                                                                                                                             In an article entitled “Mining the Boreal North,” AmericanScientist for March-April presents information so interesting that Ishouldn’t have missed mentioning it in last quarter’s column. It describes theconflict between the native Sámi of Scandinavia and Swedish timber companieswhose removal of older spruce forest deprived reindeer of the pendulous lichenwhich provided the latter with winter food. It also tells how smoke fromsmelters “contained heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, which were capturedby lichen and then accumulated in reindeer and the people who ate them.”

               But that’s not the only reference to pendulous lichens I should have includedin my last column. Natural History for April described old-man’s-beardlichens in Nepal anddescribes the same lichen on the shoreof Lake Superior as being“an ethereal light-green lichen” which is “very sensitive to air pollution.”

               Psilocybin use and its history are discussed in NYU Alumni Magazine’sSpring issue in an article promising publication of the results of an ongoingstudy of psilocybin’s use in treating cancer-related anxiety. And AmericanLaboratory’s contribution to mycology in its May issue is the revelationthat the electron micrograph on its April cover was of air dried green breadmold, while Natural History for the month presents more evidence thatthe “historic spread of [Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, (Bd)]has been linked to global trade in frogs [particularly Xenopus laevis,which can survive a Bd infection] and the subsequent  releaseof many in the wild.”  Science for 10 May reports the same story.

               Finally some official recognition for a fungus! Chemical & EngineeringNews (C&EN) for May 13 reports that the Oregon House ofRepresentatives has unanimously passed a resolution to make brewer’s yeast, Saccharomycescerevisiae the official microbe of the state. Then again, The Weekfor May 17 manages to have a full-page discussion of “The ecosystem inside you”with many references to bacteria but none to fungi. This is more than compensatedfor by two articles on the web. LiveScence for 22 May focuses on ourfungal companions (particularly those on our feet) and Nature.com for 22May gives a glimpse of the true role played by fungi: “Eleven core-body and armsites were dominated by fungi of the genus Malassezia . . .By contrast,three foot sites—plantar heel, toenail and toe web—showed high fungaldiversity.”

               Laura Reiner calls our attention to a web article on 21 May describing howscientists have recently sequenced the genome of the strain of Phytophthorainfestans which ravaged the Irish potato crop between 1845 and 1852. Thiswas accomplished using dried potato leaves which had been preserved in aherbarium since 1847.

               Using probiotics to prevent disease seems more advanced for frogs than forpeople. American Scientist for May-June reports that treating frogs witha bacterium called Janthinobacterium lividum reliably protected themfrom chytridiomycosis. The bacterium produces violacein, which inhibits chytridfungal growth.    

               The June Smithsonian loaded with fungal references. Therein, we learnthat India has ceased usinggrenades containing a very hot pepper known as Bhut Jolokia against protestersin Kashmir because the powdered chili is proneto fungal rot. Elsewhere in the issue, Mimi Sheraton muses on the enhancementof wild mushrooms with butter or horseradish cream and avers that  “Theonly way to really grasp and remember the [black Perigord] truffle’s blackmagic flavor and exquisitely overripe, vaguely evil aroma is at least once tobite into one without any enhancement other than the kiss of butter or baconand brandy that were brushed on before the truffle was wrapped in parchment andplaced in a metal pan to be roasted under white ashes”. She emphasizes thatthis must be done with Tuber melanosporum rather than white Albatruffles.

               Later in the same issue we encounter “Yeasts of the Southern Wild” andbuttermilk drops, which are doubly dependent on fungi, while a book reviewnotes that the untimely death of Lord Carnarvon following his disturbance ofKing Tutankhamen’s tomb was more likely to have

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

been caused by a fungus found in batguano than by evil spirits. The untimely death of impatiens plants can also beblamed on a fungus according to The Boston Globe for June 12, whichnotes a warning by state officials that “Impatiens downy mildew…infects theflowers and causes them to die, but does not affect other types of plants orflowers... . . The first sign of infection are leaves that appear slightlyyellow or off-color, with small, white powder-like spores on the underside ofthe leaves.”

               The Week for June 14 doesn’t mention fungi in a piece about why frogsand other amphibians are disappearing, but does discuss our fungal inhabitantsin part as follows: “Researchers recently set out to map our fungi, anddiscovered that our feet harbor more than 100 types of fungi, 80 of which liveon our heels alone. Our head and trunk, by contrast are dominated by a singlegenus of fungus called Malassezia, which can cause dandruff. On average,two to 32 types of fungi reside on other areas of the body, including thehands, elbows, thighs and groin. Most of that fungi [sic] is harmless and mayeven protect us from invading microbes that cause diseases or fungal infectionslike athlete’s foot.”

               If you were interested in getting rid of these friendly fungi, you might haveto do for yourself what the Ecuadorean government is doing for frogs. Accordingto NewScientist (NS) dated 15 June, they are collectingamphibians and keeping them in temperature-controlled fungus-free “life rafts.”The same issue describes the use of fungi for packaging material as wasdescribed in The New Yorker for May 20 and criticized in a separatearticle in this Bulletin. The criticisms don’t apply to using fungi topackage people (i.e., build domiciles) as carried out by Richard Schiffman,described in Slate for June 23 and called to our attention by LauraReiner.

               And, if you’re interested in fighting your fungal symbionts, you may beinterested in C&EN for June 10 wherein is described a way ofmodifying amphotericin B to make it less toxic to you. Slime molds, however,are so intelligent, that it might be wiser not to fight them, but to takeadvantage of their intelligence, as described in NS dated June 22,wherein we learn that Physarum polvcephalum, in addition to finding theshortest paths between nutrients, can function as a memristor, a variableresistor whose resistance can be set by the application of a suitable voltageand which “remembers” the setting when the voltage is turned off.

               Marcia Jacob calls our attention to an article in the Wall Street Journalfor June 27 which describes a popular videogame in Japan that features growingmushrooms, and includes a dancing mushroom. The featured mushrooms are not theones familiar to BMC members,  but are more than 200 characters which arevariants of the nameko, a slimy but very popularmushroom.       

               Science for 28 June publishes a correction to a previous depiction of apartial modern tree of life. A fungus (yeast) retains its place as a primaryancestor of multicellular creatures. And NS for 29 June describesdo-it-yourself science projects of some readers. These include “collectingwild mushrooms and catching the spores on agar plates to try to grow spawn fromthem.”

               I find it hard to picture caribou subsisting on lichen, even lichen danglingfrom tree branches, but National Wildlife for June/July provides theeven harder-to-picture description of musk oxen digging through snow “to get totheir food source—lichens growing on rocks beneath the snowcover.”                                                                    

               A note in the July CAP Today suggests (to me, anyway) that carrying a UVlamp might help in identifying fungi. It certainly does help in identifyingfungal infections of fingernails and toenails, which, when irradiated withultraviolet light can be identified “by their tubular or annular shapes withfluorescence surrounding them.”

Harper’s magazine for Julyhas it all in an article on the mysterious death of “Steven Pollock, aphysician and pioneering mycologist,” who was an acquaintance of Gary Lincoff.The article also contains a reference to a mysterious tape recording referredto by Paul Stamets and the author’s analysis of possible clues on this tape tothe circumstances of Pollock’s death. Paul Stamets pops up again in Discovermagazine for July, which was called to our attention by Joel

           #100 TMC October 2013    Page 03  CopyrightedMaterial

Kershner.  An articletherein contains an interesting and detailed explanation of Paul’s many ideason mycorestoration and tells of how he “trained [i.e., selectively bred} Metarhiziumanisopliae, which kills termites and carpenter ants when its spores aresprayed on them directly,” so that it lagged in spore production and could begrown on rice, which would attract ants that carry it back to their nest. Heused the infected rice to rid his house of the ants.

               Reading the book The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, I kept wishing fora photograph of the wife so I could judge for myself whether I might make thesame mistake. The Discover article doesn’t suffer from this error andshows Stamets wearing a hat in a sidebar entitled “The Man Who Mistook HisMushroom for a Hat.” It tells how the spongy layer of Fomes fomentariuscan be processed into a warm, feltlike fabric, as well as being useful as afire starter under the name “amadou.” And a third reference to hats (a hattrick?) occurs in NS for 6 July, wherein a reader states that herhusband has a hat made of bracket fungus, which he bought in Hungary.

               Jean Palmer sends us a Smithsonian web item from July 17 which recountsthe debates over fossil organisms known as Prototaxites and illustrates theauthor’s slant with its title: “Long Before Trees Overtook the Land, Earth wasCovered by Giant Mushrooms,” but presents other possibilities which explainthese fossils. Which brings us to The  Week for July 19, wherein itis explained to us that “artichoke oysters” on a menu were made “by frying upoyster mushrooms and presenting them on artichoke leaves topped with ‘caviar’made from kelp,” and that a “magical buffet” in Nanjing featured fungus soupand salted duck. 

               As for aspiration, rather than oral ingestion, of molds, NS for 20 Julyinforms us that the Jubillee line, the youngest of the London Underground linesis “mouldier than the much older Central and  Bakerloo lines.” But thisdoes not seem to be a threat to health, unlike the spores which are spreadingcoccidioidomycosis at an alarming rate in the SouthwestU.S.A., according to a report in The Week for July 26. Andthe mushroom in a BBC Asia News report dated 28 July and called to ourattention by Larry Millman may turn out to be a cause for celebration. It wasfound by villagers in China’sJianshui County and weighed more than 15kilograms and measured nearly a meter in diameter.

               Chytrid fungus shows up again in the July-August American Scientist,wherein we learn that carriers of this fungus which is wiping out previouslyunexposed populations of frogs have been found in the United States, as well as in Africa.  And Mother Jones for the same time period reports that when Cyndi Lauperstopped by the office of Rep. Jared Polis last spring, he served her some ofthe Colorado-crafted High Country Kombucha he keeps on hand. I apologize if youalready knew this.    

               Harper’s for August contains an article entitled “Gaboxadol,” which isthe name of a derivative of muscimol, which is a compound found in Amanitamuscaria. The article is an unintended (I guess) case study in wildspeculation and self-medication based on this wild speculation. The authorsurvived to write the article. On the other hand, Science for 2 Augustdoesn’t betray its name by pretending to competently discuss the playing ofharps, but provides us with insights on the war between plants and their fungalpathogens. “Plant surface receptors. . .  sense fungal chitin oligomers,which are basic components of fungal cell walls, and thereby trigger immunedefenses against the fungus. The fungi, in turn, have evolved molecularcountermeasures . . .  [such as] a fungal effector protein, Ecpj6, whichis secreted by the leaf mold Cladosporium fulvum and provides a meansfor the pathogen to hide from the host.” Also, the same motif which is acomponent of the plant surface receptors exists in dimeric form in fungi, whereit serves to hide chitin from the plant’s immune responses. 

               The New Yorker dated August 12 & 19 contains an article on thesearch for the cause of BEN (Balkan endemic nephropathy), a kidney disease andthe many blind alleys down which researchers were led before concluding that afungal toxin called ochratoxin A was the apparent cause.

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               During a bit of time travel, I have picked up a copy of American Scientistfor September-October. Therein we learn of and are shown “beautiful,gravity-defying structures can form when water freezes under the rightconditions.” One of these structures is known as hair ice, which “is related tothe presence of a fungus [in dead wood]. . . waste gases produced as the fungusdecomposed the wood formed pressure that aids in pushing water out of thewood’s thin channels and so to the surface, where organic material in the wateraids in rapid freezing.”

                                      Cooking WithMushrooms

Dijon Chicken with Mushrooms

4 boneless skinless chicken breast halves

2 tablespoons flour (with salt and pepperadded)

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

11/2 tablespoon butter

1 medium onion, chopped

11/2 cup fresh or hydrated Maitake,Oyster or Shiitake mushrooms, thickly sliced

1/2 cup heavy cream

1 tablespoon fresh parsley, chopped

1 tablespoon Dijon mustard

1 tablespoon lemon juice

Pound breasts until 1/4" thick. Coatwell with the flour mixture. Heat oil over medium heat. Add chicken and sautéabout 8 minutes, turning once. Remove and set aside, save juice. Add butter tofry pan and increase heat to high. Add onion and mushrooms. Sauté about 6-8minutes. Reduce heat to low. Add cream, parsley, mustard and lemon juice. Bringto a boil stirring constantly. Add juices from chicken into cream mixture. Poursauce over chicken and serve. A nice wild rice mix goes well as a side dish.Also Chardonnay..........as usual.

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                #100 TMC October 2013    Page 05  Copyrighted Material

             HowMushroom Spores Are Spread About The World

A Posthttp://shroomotopia.net/index.php?showtopic=21449#entry246533 by the Real Mr. G....he posts that Psilocybe cubensis spores were brought to Floridafrom Cubaby cattle swimming ashore and having the spores in their stomachs.

Facts about Mushroom Spores:

When mushroom spores are picked up by jet steams, they arespread all over the Earth's atmosphere. They cover the entire Earth.  Ifthe species of mushroom has been around for the last 100 or 1,000 years (whichis usually the case), it has had enough time to be spread everywhere around theEarth.  The fact is, Psilocybe mexicana sporescover the entire Earth, even all about the North and South Poles.  But, you do not see them there because all ofthe conditions needed for them to fruit, do not exist.  Now if a subtropical Island, which has neverhad cattle on it, suddenly has cattle brought to it, and now meets therequirements for Psilocybe mexicana having plenty of cattle dung (and all otherrequirements), there is a good chance you will see this mushroom.  The cattle or the people did not need tobring spores, they were already there. The only thing missing was the cattle. 

These same facts hold true for Psilocybe cubensis.  The spores were always there.  There just were not proper conditions forthem to fruit.  Once cattle wereintroduced, the spores could grow and produce mushrooms.  Mushroom spores do not need cattle (or theirstomachs), or people to spread them about.......they already exist in the windall over the world.  Do you really thinkthat the wind could not blow mushroom spores from Cubato Florida?  Do you really think that without people orcattle moving from Cuba to Florida, there would have never been Psilocybe cubensis sporesin Florida?  I have done articles and posts on this"urban legend" for many years and yet some are still spreading falseinformation on how mushroom spores travel. Now you know.  slp/fmrc

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                Antidote For Amanita muscaria and Muscarine

I answered to this post at another mushroom forum:

"I'm told belladonna is the antidote to these mushrooms (Amanita muscaria) - someone must behaving a laugh at all those doctors who think the mushroom is even trippierthan it is."

It just so happens, Atropine is the antidote for Muscarine. It, a long timeago, worked its way onto Internet under "What to do about MushroomPoisoning". It even sets on many Veterinarian search's, and has goodresults with certain pets, more so than with humans. Thing is, unless you havedigested a mushroom that holds Muscarine, Atropine does no good whenadministered. It actually can make the patient's condition much worse. Amanitamuscaria is named because of its Muscarine content. One large mushroomcan bring about "drools", dehydration, and sit you down some placeyou do not like being. I have never seen any documented proof that someone diedspecifically from the Amanita muscaria mushroom. Somespecies of Inocybe hold high amounts of Muscarine and they can cause death. Ithink in these cases, a doctor may decide to use Atropine. So, if you there areno signs of Muscarine, do not use Atropine. Atropine will have no effect on Phalloidin,the deadly compound in Deadly Amanita like A. phalloides.
                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 06  CopyrightedMaterial
 

Nowsaying belladonna is the antidote for this mushroom Amanita muscaria, wasinteresting to me. I was wondering where this information came from. If youcould, I would like to receive it. Thing is, Atropine is extracted from"Atropa belladonna" and also Datura stramonium L.  And you are right. These products can be verypowerful and deliver a good punch to the person who takes them. That's a goodreason for not wanting to get an Atropine treatment if not needed.

Year's ago, I got an email from someone who had a book, something like"Odd Cures and Antidotes. He said when he looked up Muscarine, it said theantidote was Atropine, When he looked up Atropine, the antidote was Muscarine.
This is taken from #46 TEO Nov. 2013 Issue. Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC

Advertising in The Mushroom Culture is just good rifle shotadvertising.  Plus, when it is posted upfor download at our website, www.mushroomsfmrc.com, hundreds of thousands ofpeople see it!  Pretty good deal, whenyou think about it.  If its MushroomRelated, and you want to sell it, try this:

                             How  To Place  An  Ad In  “TMC”

For 1 full year (4 issues)…Full page $500.00, ½ page$250.00, ¼ page $125.00.

For one time (1 issue)…Full page $200.00, ½ page $100.00, ¼page $50.00, 40 word ad $20.00.

                                            -----------------------------------

Books Available Only From FMRC’s Book Store………AndNow It Is On Line For FREE Viewing

                  Mushroom BooksYou Never Knew Existed
For a complete list of FMRC’s publications, videos, and a listing of all theBack Issues of "TMC" with a summary of each ones contents, see theFMRC “MAIN” Catalog posted On Line at our website www.mushroomsfmrc.comthen click “Catalogs” off of our Main Menu. Then just scroll down and you will see all we have to offer.  Also, check out our “Store”. The down load orcopy/paste is free.          -------------------------------------------

                 Submitting Spore Samplesfor This Journal

Submitting spore samples for Journal entries, entitles you to one year’sfree subscription to the "Physical" Hard Copy issues published byFMRC.  Only select prints that you are sure of identification.  Donot submit samples you cannot identify.  "TMC" and"TEO" ("THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal Of MushroomCultivation (TMC) and "TEONANACATL", The International Journal OfPsychoactive Mushrooms TEO), both published by FMRC, remain the only"color" mushroom journals that come with mushroom spore printsamples.  This is mainly due to reader collection and the fact it is quitetroublesome to place the said samples into the Journals.  To this date, Iknow of no one else who has tried taking on this task.  Mushroom printsshould be taken on paper.  Any dark colored spores can be taken on whitepaper.  Light colored or white spores

should be taken on a dark colored paper.  This will ensurecontrast and make the spores easy to see.  Seven to nine complete sheetsshould be submitted.  Place

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 07  CopyrightedMaterial

and affix (with staple or tape) cover sheet over each sheet ofprints.  Send date and where collected.  Wild edibles make the bestsubmissions for the "TMC" Journal.  If you wish to submit acontroversial type, like Psilocybe cyanescens,

these said types may be submitted (or we will forward) to"TEONANACATL", The International Journal of Psychoactive Mushrooms(TEO).  Because these issues have thisunique feature of mushroom spore print samples to aid in the correctidentification of mushrooms collected out in the wild, they have a cutoff of3,000 subscribers.  This makes originalHard Copy back issues of "TMC" and "TEO" rare and the mostvaluable to collect.

CONGRATULATIONS TO THE FOLLOWINGPEOPLE
Because of your input to this issue of "TMC", you are awarded ayear’s free subscription.  We all thank you for your very helpful input: ColorPhotograph of Lactariusindigo andFREE spore samples by R. Arnold, and Dennis Forth for correct "MQ".Answer,

CULTURE FLASK…….. Is this your last Issueon Subscription?            

                                                                 

For Physical "TMC" HARD COPYSubscriptions That Contain Spore Samples
IF YOUR CULTURE FLASK HAS A "RED" CONTAMINANT IN IT,

THIS ISYOUR LAST ISSUE!  Send $30 to renew yoursubscription ($50 US Dollars for Out Of Country), for another year'ssubscription.  The "RED"contaminant is your only reminder, other than your mailing label saying"00" issues left after your first name.  As we value your support and interests,please send payment now while it is on your mind.  This way, "TMC" can continue andyou will never miss an issue.  After all,it is your Journal.

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Mushroom Spore Print sample For #100 TMCOCT 2013                                                          "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"  
Tylopilus felleus 
EDIBILITY –  Inedible.  Free print samples provided by Robin Arnoldto help identify this mushroom.          

FMRC’s Catalog Number…………………………………………………………#SO26

How To Win A Year’s Free SubscriptionTo "TMC"
If you see any article about mushrooms, past or present, and you think othersmay like to read about it, send it in.  If it is used in "TMC",you get the free subscription.  If you find a large stand of a particularspecies of mushroom, and are able to collect 7 to 10 good full sheets of sporeprints (enough to place samples in "TMC"), send them in.  Ifthey are accepted, they will be placed in

"TMC", and you get the freesubscription.  If you send anything in that has to do with mushrooms, andit is used (Mail Call letters do not apply), you get the freesubscription.  If you do not want your name mentioned, please state so andwe will honor your wishes.  Free subscriptions are physical issues withspore print samples and 4" X 6" color photographs.   

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

                   MUSHROOM QUIZ "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of thisJournal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  Nophone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail). The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to thisJournal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in thefollowing edition (unless you state "Not to publish yourname").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with yourknowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #99 "TMC"What is a “Paddock Stool”?

Last Issue’s Answer:  An oldEnglish common name for some Bolete.  

WINNER with first correct answer:  Dennis Forth

"MQ" For This Issue #100:  What does the term “Toroid” mean?     

                                       

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                #100 TMC October 2013    Page 09  CopyrightedMaterial

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation(TMC)
       Color photograph for #100, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                     October 2013                                  

                                   Photograph Copyrightedby FMRC  

                                            Lactarius indigo

                                    Photographby Robin Arnold        

   

                                        

        

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 10  CopyrightedMaterial

                      Florida  Mycology  Research  Center (FMRC)

                         POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523 USA

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                    #100 TMC October  2013