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You have reached "THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE", Journal of Mushroom Cultivation - OnLine.  This page is supported by donations.  If you have benefited from visiting here, and would like to see other people benefit like you have, please make a donation to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523 in any amount.  Without your help, this public service cannot continue.  These are Electronic Issues and do not have the photographs that the Hard Copy Issues have.  You must subscribe to receive Original Issues.  Subscription information is within the Journals.  slp/fmrc

 Some words my run on into each other due to transfer from word document unto this site.

#102 “TMC” Copyright 2014    

ISSN: 1078-4314

For April 2014                            $15.00

                                     

              The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)

     The Official Mushroom Journal for the “Independent

               Mushroom Grower’s Network” (IMGN)

                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

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EDITORS:          You the reader

                   Over 7,000 IMGN Members 

          Marshall E. Deutsch:  Articles Taken from "The Bulletin Of

                                    The Boston Mycological Club” and other recent references                                

                                to fungi encountered during the editor’s quotidian activities

                  Cooking Editor: Robin Arnold

                  Chief Editor:  Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC

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The world’s only and longest running color Mushroom Journal (Since 1984) that comes with actual “Live Mushroom Spore Print Samples” affixed inside (held safe inside a small sealed plastic envelope).    

                                                 C O N T E N T S

Mushroom Journal Subscriptions and other Journal information.....................01

USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR .......................02

      PRODUCTION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

Cooking With Mushrooms...............................................................................07

RedCap Posts Wrong Information at Shroomotopia.......................................08

A short quick lesson on Scientific Names for Shroomotopia..........................09

Mycology in the Media....................................................................................09

Shiitake Mushrooms Do Not Make Good Spores...........................................11

CULTURE  FLASK…….. Is this your last Issue on Subscription?..................11

FREE Mushroom Spore Print sample Coprinus comatus............................11

Mushroom Quiz..............................................................................................12

FREE TMC Subscriptions..............................................................................12

Color Photograph Psilocybe tampanensis sclerotia....................................13                                        

                                                  aa

Mushroom Journal Subscriptions:  If you would like to order a subscription to “THE MUSHROOM CULTURE”, you may send request and payment of $30.00 made out to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola, FL. 32523, for one year. 

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                  #102 TMC April 2014    Page 01  Copyrighted Material

                                                   M A I L   C A L L

USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

  Department of Crop Science

    Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya

    Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka.

 Tel : 94-81-2395126,  2395111       Fax : 94-81-2395110                   e-mail: jpkirthi@pdn.ac.lk

_______________________________________________________________________________

02 January 2014

The Editor,

The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation,

Florida Mycology Research Center

FMRC, POB 18105,

Pensacola, FL 32523

U.S.A.

Dear Sir/Madam

Submission of a Research Paper for The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation,

Herewith I am sending the research paper title ‘USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS), to be considered for the The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation

Thank you.

Yours sincerely, Dr.J.P.Kirthisinghe

USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION OF          OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

J.P. Kirthisinghe and H.W.J.P.Amarasekara

Department of Crop Science

Faculty of Agriculture

 University of Peradeniya

Peradeniya 20400

Sri Lanka

email address:      jpkirthi@pdn.ac.lk

Mailing address: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture,

 University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Contact nos:  0094 716662173, 0094 714446754

              #102 TMC April 2014    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

Use of spawn run in different substrates for production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

J.P. Kirthisinghe and H.W.J.P.Amarasekara

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture

 University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is an attractive crop in Sri Lanka, as it enables to acquire substrate materials at low prices to conserve our environment by recycling wastes. Successful mushroom cultivation depends on reliable spawn and good substrate. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to find out the possibility of using the grower produce spawn run as the initial planting material and to identify the suitable substrate for production of oyster mushroom for the new method. The experiment was conducted for two seasons in the mushroom unit, University Experimental Station, Dodangolla. 5 g of spawn of oyster mushroom for treatments 1 and 3, and 10 g of spawn run for treatments 2 and 4 were used as the planting material. The saw dust substrate for treatments 1 and 2 and the paddy substrate for treatments 3 and 4 were used in polypropylene bags. There was no significant difference observed among treatments on  spawn runing and pin head formation. A significant difference was observed between the two substrates used in this experiment for the time taken for the first harvest and the total harvest. This study revealed that spawn and spawn run can be use as a planting material and they have no significant impact on duration of spawn runing and pin head formation. In contrast the paddy straw was a better substrate compared to saw dust, which had a great impact on growth and gave the first harvest within 29-30 days. The total harvest was also significantly higher in paddy straw substrate compared to saw dust. Since there was no significant yield difference between the spawn and spawn run treatments the growers will be able to save a rupee from each bag.

Key words: spawn, spawn run, saw dust, paddy straw

#102 TMC April 2014    Page 03  Copyrighted Material

 

Use of spawn run in different substrates for production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

H. W. J. P. Amarasekara and J. P. Kirthisinghe

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture

 University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

INTRODUCTION

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is an attractive crop in Sri Lanka, as it enables to acquire substrate materials at low prices to conserve our environment by recycling wastes. Therefore, it is a commercially important, predominantly grown edible mushroom variety which widely practices in small-scale cultivation as a self-employment and a profitable agribusiness in Sri Lanka. Pleurotus is an efficient lignin degrading mushroom and can grow and yield well on different types of lignocellulolosic materials. Cultivation of oyster mushroom is very simple and has various advantages such as, it requires low space; low investment cost; easy to propagate; could take income in a short duration. Successful mushroom cultivation depends on three factors; reliable spawn, good substrate, conducive environment (Islam et al., 2009). Most of the growers in mid country buy the` reliable spawn from Department of Agriculture (DOA), Gannoruwa, Sri Lanka. Kirthisinghe and Amarasekera (2012) found that spawn run could be utilised as a planting material for the growers. Oyster mushroom growers in Sri Lanka use saw dust substrate mixture including rice bran, soya flour, or mung bean flour, CaCO3 and MgSO4. The information on the potential use of other locally available cost effective substrates are scarce (Rajapakse et al., 2007). Therefore, this experiment was carried out to find out the possibility of using the grower produce spawn run as the initial planting material and to identify the suitable cost effective substrate to reduce cost of production of oyster mushroom.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The research was conducted in the mushroom unit, University Experimental Station, Dodangolla, Sri Lanka. The primary inoculum was prepared using fresh fruiting body of the mushroom through tissue culture method and multiplied by sub-culturing on sterilized PDA medium in petri dishes, incubated at 28 ˚C of room temperature. Paddy seeds were washed by teepol and boiled for 20 minutes until 25 percent of paddy seed become split. After cooling, 5 percent CaCO3 and 20 percent CaSO4 powder were mixed with boiled paddy seeds. 30 g of paddy seeds were filled into a polypropylene bag and sterilized for 20 minutes in a pressure cooker. Piece of mycelium tissue was inserted into steam-sterilized paddy seeds bags under aseptic condition and incubated at 28 ˚C of room temperature for 7 days until the grains were covered with white mycelia. This grain mycelium mixture is called as ‘spawn’.

The spawn run was prepared using the following method. The substrate was prepared

               #102 TMC April 2014    Page 04  Copyrighted Material

according to the DOA recommendation using 10 kg of saw dust, 1 kg of Rice bran, 100 g of Soya bean, 100 g of mung bean flour, 200 g of CaCO3, and 20 g of MgSO4 for 20 containers .Then bags were sterilized by using a barrel for 3-4 hours and kept for 4 hrs to cool. The spawns were inserted to the bags by using lighted candles to make a suitable environment for inoculation. The inoculated polypropylene bags were kept for 28 days in a dark room to complete the spawn run. After the mycelium run in the substrate and remains white and firm were called as ‘spawn run’.

5 g of spawn of oyster mushroom were used as planting material for treatments 1 and 3. Then 10 g of spawn run were used as the planting material for each in treatments 2 and 4. The experiment was laid according to Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 10 replicates and 5 bags for each replicate. The treatments were,

T1 - saw dust in polypropylene bags + 5 g of spawn (DOA recommendation)

T2 - saw dust in polypropylene bags + 10 g of spawn run

T3 - paddy straw in polypropylene bags + 5 g of spawn

T4 – paddy straw in polypropylene bags + 10 g of spawn run

22 cm height and 8 cm diameter of polypropylene bags were used for the experiment. Each of the polypropylene bag was filled with 500 g of wet substrate. The substrate for polypropylene bags in treatments 1 and 2 were prepared according to the DOA recommendation using 100 kg of saw dust, 10 kg of Rice bran, 1 kg of Soya bean, 1 kg of mung bean flour, 2 kg of CaCO3, and 200 g of MgSO4 for 200 bags.

The substrate for polypropylene bags in treatments 3 and 4 were prepared according to the DOA recommendation using paddy 80 kg of straw, 10 kg of Rice bran, 1 kg of Soya bean, 1 kg of mung bean flour, 2 kg of CaCO3, and 200 g of MgSO4 for 200 bags.

All the polypropylene bags were sterilised using a barrel. The spawns for treatments 1 and 3 and spawn run for treatments 2 and 4 were inserted to the substrate autoclaved for 3-4 hours by using lighted candles to make a suitable environment for inoculation. Cotton waste, PVC rings and Rubber bands were used to seal the 200 gauges polypropylene bags. The polypropylene bags were sealed and kept for 28 days in a dark room to complete the spawn run. After completing spawn run, the bags were transferred to the cropping room and 20 ˚C temperature was maintained for fruiting body formation. Humidity of bags was accomplished by spraying of water on them twice a day. Natural air was used for mushroom during fructification. To maintain high humidity of 85 percent water was sprayed several times per day. When the pin head have grown to size of 1 cm, the humidity was lowered the 75 percent by passing fresh air through the room. Harvesting was done by twisting and pulling of the mushroom from the substrate until the mycelium remains white and firm. In total, five flushes were harvested for the study.

Days taken from inoculation to completion of spawn run, pin head formation, fruit body formation, the first harvest and the total yield were recorded. Then the  biological efficiency and cost effectiveness were calculated. Data were  analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure by SAS and mean separation was done using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at p= 0.05.

                      #102 TMC April 2014    Page 05  Copyrighted Material

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There was no significant difference observed among treatments on spawn runing and pin head formation. Time taken for  spawn runing, pin head formation and harvest of the above processes are given in Table 1.

Table 1  - Time taken for spawn runing, pin head formation and harvest

T1

T2

T3

T4

Spawn run (days)

33a

32a

29a

30a

Pin head formation (days)

49a

48a

45a

44a

First flush (days)

51a

50a

47b

46b

First harvest (days)

52a

52a

48b

48b

Total yield per bag (g)

205b

207b

215a

212a

BE%!

32b

35b

44a

45a

CV%

     12

     14

      12

      13

Values within a row followed by a common letter are not significantly different at P=0.05, according to DMRT

Formation of Monokaryon (haploid stage) occurs soon after basidiospore (spawn) germination was observed under the microscope. The short lived monokaryon stage of the Basidiomycotina fused with a compatible monokaryon which form Dikaryon (diploid stage) after 20-26 days in normal mushroom cultivation (Kirthisinghe et al., 2012). The dikaryon is the mycelium that produces the basidiocarp and basidiospore.

Celluosic substance will be degraded very easily by growing mushroom, whereas non cellulosic substances are not easily degraded. The delayed harvesting which resulted in the saw dust substrate as it one of the lignin contian substrates, it require long period  for their decomposition (Pathmashini et al., 2008). The time taken by the mycelia to start pinning after ramification depends on the substrate used. Eventhough there was no significant difference between the two substrates used in this experiment, the substrates such as saw dust with low decomposition rate took a longer period (32-33 days) to colonize completely. The substrates with high decomposition rate took a short period (29-30 days) to colonize completely. A significant difference was observed between the two substrates used in this experiment for the time taken for the first harvest and the total harvest. This may be due to the mycelia remains vegetative for a longer  period which result late pinning and take a longer period for the first harvest.

Cost effectiveness analyze for a small scale mushroom grower indicate that since there was no significant yield difference between  the spawn and spawn run  treatments (Table 1), the growers will be able to save Sri Lankan Rs. 1.00 from each bag (Table 2). Even though there was a significant difference in the cost of production between saw dust and paddy straw in mid country area, it can be varied with the relevant area.

Table 2. Cost of production of 100 bags with saw dust and paddy straw substrates

          Treatment

Cost (Rs.)

T1 - saw dust +  spawn

490a

T2 - saw dust + spawn run

390c

T3 - paddy straw + of spawn

460b

T4 - paddy straw + of spawn run

360d

Values within the column followed by a common letter are not significantly different at P=0.05, according to DMR    #102 TMC April 2014    Page 06  Copyrighted Material

CONCLUSIONS

This study revealed that there was there was no significant difference observed among treatments on  spawn runing and pin head formation. It also showed that the paddy straw is a better substrate compared to saw dust, which has a great impact on growth and gives the first harvest within 29-30 days. The total harvest was also significantly higher in paddy straw substrate compared to saw dust. Therefore, the cost of production can be reduced when using spawn run in paddy straw substrate.

REFERENCES

Islam, M.Z., Rahman, M.H. and Hafiz, F. (2009). Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus flabellatus) on different substrates. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Product. 4: 45-48.

Kirthisinghe, J.P. and Amarasekera, H.W.J.P. (2012). Bottle cultivation for spawn production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using different substrates. Book of Abstracts of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, 2012, Vol 17, p 233.

Kirthisinghe, J.P., Niroshani, M.K.C., Amarasekera P. (2012). Effect of nitrogen source in substrate for growth, yield and postharvest of oyster mushroom. Sri Lanka –India Conference on Agro Biotechnology for sustainable development. 12-13 March 2012 Colombo. Sri Lanka.

Pathmashini, L., Arulnandhy, V. and Wijeratnam R.S.W. (2008). Cultivation of oyster mushroom (pleurotusostreatus) on saw dust. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biology Science). 37(2):177-182.

Rajapakse, J.C., Rubasingha, P. and Dissanayake, N.N. (2007). The potential of using cost- effective compost mixtures for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agriculture Research and Extension. 10(1): 29-32.

                                            ----------------------------------------

                            COOKING WITH MUSHROOMS

BY Robin Arnold

TURKEY MUSHROOM CASSEROLE

Ingredients:  2 1/2 c. cooked turkey, 1 c. fresh Shiitake, diced, 3 Tbsp. butter

1 medium onion, diced, 2 c. gravy, 2 c. sour cream, 1 12 oz. pkg. egg noodles, cooked

 Sauté onion and Shiitake in butter; add gravy and sour cream. Stir until smooth and hot but do not let boil. Add turkey to heated sauce. Put noodles into a casserole dish, mix in turkey/mushroom sauce. Top with bread crumbs. Bake about an hour at 350 F.

              #102 TMC April 2014    Page 07  Copyrighted Material

Cultosaurus.........MOD at Shroomotopia says:  "That has many controversial theories of it's beginnings, so I do certainly understand the controversies over mushrooms, their naming, classifications, and all that revolves around basic mushroom biology.  And so, I see that there will always be controversy.  It appears to be inevitable.  Even my favorite, the cyanofriscosa, has recently been given a new name after John Allen. ""

There are no controversies over applying the correct scientific names of mushrooms, it is called "Taxonomy".  It appears you need to learn a few things about mushrooms too.  To use the origin of our universe to compare it to Taxonomy, is not a correct comparison.  The John Allen mushroom is also a wrong comparison.  It actually is named by using proper Taxonomy.  It appears this knowledge is lacking in the case of Red, and now I see, you also.  

A post by Red:  And if you were even Willing to do the research you would find out that I Was Right. Have a nice day and keep your fukt up Opinion to yourself."

You see, its not my fukt up opinion, it is the opinion of Taxonomy.

Not only does he not understand Taxonomy, he does not understand the difference in "Order" and "Genus".  I copy/paste his post here with my reply:

Red says:  "Here is his proof that there is a gilled mushroom in the genus Boletus:"

Taken from: http://blog.mycology.cornell.edu/2006/12/01/paxillus-a-gilled-bolete/

"Using a couple of different keys, I decided that this specimen was Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, a member of the order Boletales. Members of the genus Phylloporus are 'gilled boletes'. They belong to the order Boletales, as opposed to the gilled mushrooms traditionally placed in the order Agaricales. Instead of gills, boletes typically have a spongy hymenophore composed of vertical tubes that create a pored undersurface. Despite Phylloporus' gills, it is also grouped with the Boletales."

Hey Redcap......you just proved what I stated. That mushroom is not in the Genus Boletus. You keep saying I am wrong. That means you say there is a gilled mushroom in the Genus Boletus. Your mushroom is in the Genus Phylloporus. Do you not understand what "Order" and "Genus" mean? I think not. There is no gilled mushroom in the Genus Boletus. I stand by that post. slp/fmrc

You see, there is no controversy, only his lack of proper mycological understanding. 

He also does not understand the difference between Too, To, and Two.  Nor does he understand the difference between There, Their, and They're.  Yeah, he sent me a PM....he has since deleted it.  He asked me to "except" his apology.  Even a third grader knows that this should be "accept".  This is the person who tells me I am wrong, calls me names, and uses disrespectful posts against me.  All of such, by the rules posted, call for the person to be banned.  Well, next thing I know, Red Cap disappears like he has been banned.  Then, swampdweller appears.....and what do you know, it is Red Cap!

           #102 TMC April 2014    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

I am not used to being talked to like that......especially by someone who not only appears to lack mycological knowledge, but also appears to be a high school drop out.  I would not piss on Red if he was on fire.  He must learn that the actions he took were wrong and uncalled for.  As he seems to have gotten away with all his stupidness, and goes right on like nothing he did was wrong, and that he was 100% right, I must see to it that he is punished.  May the record show that it is because of RedCap's lack of punishment by Shroomotopia, I refuse to subject myself to such disrespectful posts ever again, especially by someone of his likeness.  Anyone and yourself can always email me to get my opinion on a mushroom matter.  And I am telling you, no mushroom in the Genus Boletus has gills.

I hope Shroomotopia is satisfied with all of his future gibberish and untrue statements about mushrooms, for this is what you are left with, by your choice. slp/fmrc  

                             -----------------------------------

  A short quick lesson on Scientific Names for Shroomotopia

Several months ago, Red Cap, now known as swampdweller, posted disrespectful posts at me, calling me names and using abusive language.  According to their rules, a person who does this will be banned.  So much for rules.  Swampdweller continued to say that there was a mushroom in the Genus Boletus that had gills and that I should do my research.  Truth is, he is the one that needs to do his research and study mycology so that he at least can understand scientific names.  Even a mod there said controversies and different ideas about things would always exist.  Hey, there is no controversy about this.  It appears none of them understand anything about the scientific name for a mushroom.  So here it is:

A scientific name has two parts.  Take for instance Amanita muscaria.  The first part, Amanita, states what genus the mushroom is in.  The second part, muscaria, states what species in Amanita the mushroom is in.  So the scientific name tells us that this mushroom is in the Genus Amanita and its species is muscaria.  Everybody still with me?

Now swampdweller's mushroom, the one that has gills, scientific name is Phylloporus rhodoxanthus.  He even posted this information.  Now this scientific name tells us that this mushroom is in the Genus Phylloporus......not Boletus.  If it was in the Genus Boletus, it would be named Boletus rhodoxanthus.  So, now all the "controversy" can now be put aside.  Now everyone understands why there is no mushroom in the Genus Boletus that has gills.  Maybe not.  Seems to be some really hard headed people sometimes.  It appears that swampdweller lacks

much mycological knowledge and continues to stand by false information he has placed on the internet.  I for one have stopped posting there and would not go there to get any information on mushrooms.  No since in wasting my time where no one wants to listen to me but listen to someone who has no idea of what he is talking about.  I stop by http://www.entheogen-network.com/forums/index.php at least once a day for anyone who has a question and wants the truth in an answer.  Just scroll down the “Mush Room”.  slp/fmrc

Taken from #47 TEO FEB 2014                                                                                                                    

                                                  Mycology in the Media

Marshall E. Deutsch

 Natural History for October describes the relationship between “blue stain” fungus and mountain pine beetles: “A female beetle carries the spores of these symbiotic fungi in mycangia, shallow pits in her mouth and along her body adapted to hold them. The blue stain fungi spread through the gallery, and into the outer portions of the wood, clogging the phloem and the deeper vascular tissue…” The fungi break down the wood, making it a better food source for the beetles. The

              #102 TMC April 2014    Page 09  Copyrighted Material

same issue tells of white pine blister rust “a peculiar Eurasian fungus that invaded North America in 1910.  It moves across a tree’s limbs like necrosis. . .”

                Fungi are up to no good in Jordan, according to Science for 8 November wherein is described the spread of “Panama disease” which is caused by a soil fungus that “wiped out banana plantations by the mid-20th century, until they were replanted with a resistant crop.” Twenty years ago a new variant has arisen and spread.

                As for fungi attacking animals,, NewScientist (NS) for 16 November reports that 1-octen-3-ol (known as mushroom alcohol because of the smell it imparts to, e.g. Agaricus bisporus) may be linked to Parkinon’s disease, as suggested by the fact that it causes “degeneration of dopamine neurons and movement disorders in fruit flies.” (This study is also reported in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) for November 25.) For your safety you may wish to turn these mushrooms over to your editor if you have any. And here’s a question posed by a reader in the same issue:”I have an oval bath sponge about 2 centimetres thick . . . .Black mould is growing on the sides, particularly the long sides rather than the rounded ends, but not on the larger faces. Why is this?”

                In The New Yorker for November 18, we learn that one of the advantages of proposed state-sanctioned suppliers of cannabis is that their product would be tested for fungal contamination. Finally for November, Larry Millman calls our attention to a LiveScience article dated the 25th wherein is described a demonstration that moisture evaporating from mushrooms creates breezes which facilitate sore dispersal. (This is also subsequently noted and illustrated in Scientific American for February.)

                Fungi made it to the cover of Scientific American for December, wherein we find an article on Cryptococcus gatti, a yeast which infects trees and people and is responsible for outbreaks among the latter in Vancouver Island, Washington and Oregon. It lives on the bark of trees and in the soil around them, but goes deeper, even infecting the brain, in people. Then again, the far longer list of benefits bestowed on us by fungi is elaborated in an article in NS for 7 December, As mycologist Lynne Boddy is quoted as stating “Without fungi, planet Earth wouldn’t work. You would be up to your armpits in dead stuff.” And also, as pointed out in C&EN for December 9, fungal mycelium can be used to make a substitute for polystyrene foam packaging. Fungus could control mosquitoes as suggested in BBC News for 17 December. Therein, we learn that Metarhizium anisopliae, when added to water where mosquitoes breed, infects the mosquitoes, but doesn’t germinate, and just stays as spores packed in the body, presumably spreading upon the death of the host.

                Science for 17 January describes experiments to unravel just how Ophiocordyceps unilateralis “causes an ant to leave its colony, climb a tree, chomp down on a twig or the underside of a leaf and die…” Fungal proteins which may be responsible for these effects have been identified.    Less spectacular to an observer are the effects of Coccidioides immitis on people who inhale its spores. As described in The New Yorker for January 20. “Once in the lung, the spore circles up into a spherule, defined by a chitinous cell wall and filled with a hundred or so baby endospores. When the spherule is sufficiently full, it ruptures, releasing endospores and stimulating an acute inflammatory response that disrupts blood flow to the tissue and can lead to necrosis. The endospores, each of which will become a new spherule, travel through                                                                                                                                                                                                the blood and lymph systems, allowing the cocci to spread. . .”    Marshall E. Deutsch

             #102 TMC April 2014    Page 10  Copyrighted Material

                         Shiitake Mushrooms Do Not Make Good Spores
Shiitake mushrooms do not produce very good spores for growing, even though there may be a heavy spore drop.  Very few if any, ever germinate.  To my knowledge, there has never been a wild strain found out in the wild.  When you think of all the shiitake growing that goes on, you would think with all those spores in the air, they would be growing all in the woods.....but this is not the case.  FMRC offers shiitake spores for comparison just in case someone thinks they may have found a wild strain growing.  I once asked an old Chinese associate "Well how do they ever get new strains?"  He said they gather up millions and millions of the spores and run them all at the same time on media.  Many times, there is no growth spotted.  Then, sometimes, a small spot of growth is noted.  This is isolated and tested to see if it is indeed a good fruiting strain.  So, I would say that if you start off with shiitake spores, chances are, you will never have a good culture.  You should either clone a fresh one from the store or order plugs for inoculating logs to get a good shiitake culture.  slp/fmrc

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EDIBILITY –  Choice Good Edible.  Free print samples provided by Robin Arnold.  Collected 10/5/13          FMRC’s Catalog Number ………………………#SO341

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       #102 TMC April 2014    Page 11  Copyrighted Material

                   MUSHROOM QUIZ  "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of this Journal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  No phone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by 1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail).  The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to this Journal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in the following edition (unless you state "Not to publish your name").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with your knowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #101 "TMC": What is the Scientific Name for the “Horse Mushroom”?

Last Issue’s Answer:  Agaricus arvensis 

Winner with Correct “MQ” Answer:  J Bird

"MQ" For This Issue #102:  What is “denuded”? 

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 CONGRATULATIONS TO THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE
Because of your input to this issue of "TMC", you are awarded a year’s free subscription.  We all thank you for your very helpful input: FREE spore samples by R. Arnold, and J. Bird for correct "MQ". Answer.

    

               #102 TMC April 2014    Page 12  Copyrighted Material

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)
        Color photograph for #102, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                      April 2014                                   

                                   Photograph Copyrighted by FMRC 

 

                  #102 TMC April 2014    Page 13  Copyrighted Material

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                     #102 TMC April  2014

                                             

            

#102 “TMC” Copyright 2014    

ISSN: 1078-4314

For April 2014                            $15.00

                                     

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                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

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                                    The Boston Mycological Club” and other recent references                                

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It is official from the USDA:  The 2011/2012 USA Mushroom Cash Crop was over $1 Billion!!!  There were only 279 registered growers!!!  Maybe you should check out “IMGN” and start getting your share!

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The world’s only and longest running color Mushroom Journal (Since 1984) that comes with actual “Live Mushroom Spore Print Samples” affixed inside (held safe inside a small sealed plastic envelope).    

                                                 C O N T E N T S

Mushroom Journal Subscriptions and other Journal information.....................01

USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR .......................02

      PRODUCTION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

Cooking With Mushrooms...............................................................................07

RedCap Posts Wrong Information at Shroomotopia.......................................08

A short quick lesson on Scientific Names for Shroomotopia..........................09

Mycology in the Media....................................................................................09

Shiitake Mushrooms Do Not Make Good Spores...........................................11

CULTURE  FLASK…….. Is this your last Issue on Subscription?..................11

FREE Mushroom Spore Print sample Coprinus comatus............................11

Mushroom Quiz..............................................................................................12

FREE TMC Subscriptions..............................................................................12

Color Photograph Psilocybe tampanensis sclerotia....................................13                                        

                                                  aa

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                  #102 TMC April 2014    Page 01  Copyrighted Material

                                                   M A I L   C A L L

USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

  Department of Crop Science

    Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya

    Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka.

 Tel : 94-81-2395126,  2395111       Fax : 94-81-2395110                   e-mail: jpkirthi@pdn.ac.lk

_______________________________________________________________________________

02 January 2014

The Editor,

The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation,

Florida Mycology Research Center

FMRC, POB 18105,

Pensacola, FL 32523

U.S.A.

Dear Sir/Madam

Submission of a Research Paper for The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation,

Herewith I am sending the research paper title ‘USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS), to be considered for the The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation

Thank you.

Yours sincerely, Dr.J.P.Kirthisinghe

USE OF SPAWN RUN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES FOR PRODUCTION OF          OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)

J.P. Kirthisinghe and H.W.J.P.Amarasekara

Department of Crop Science

Faculty of Agriculture

 University of Peradeniya

Peradeniya 20400

Sri Lanka

email address:      jpkirthi@pdn.ac.lk

Mailing address: Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture,

 University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Contact nos:  0094 716662173, 0094 714446754

              #102 TMC April 2014    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

Use of spawn run in different substrates for production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

J.P. Kirthisinghe and H.W.J.P.Amarasekara

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture

 University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is an attractive crop in Sri Lanka, as it enables to acquire substrate materials at low prices to conserve our environment by recycling wastes. Successful mushroom cultivation depends on reliable spawn and good substrate. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to find out the possibility of using the grower produce spawn run as the initial planting material and to identify the suitable substrate for production of oyster mushroom for the new method. The experiment was conducted for two seasons in the mushroom unit, University Experimental Station, Dodangolla. 5 g of spawn of oyster mushroom for treatments 1 and 3, and 10 g of spawn run for treatments 2 and 4 were used as the planting material. The saw dust substrate for treatments 1 and 2 and the paddy substrate for treatments 3 and 4 were used in polypropylene bags. There was no significant difference observed among treatments on  spawn runing and pin head formation. A significant difference was observed between the two substrates used in this experiment for the time taken for the first harvest and the total harvest. This study revealed that spawn and spawn run can be use as a planting material and they have no significant impact on duration of spawn runing and pin head formation. In contrast the paddy straw was a better substrate compared to saw dust, which had a great impact on growth and gave the first harvest within 29-30 days. The total harvest was also significantly higher in paddy straw substrate compared to saw dust. Since there was no significant yield difference between the spawn and spawn run treatments the growers will be able to save a rupee from each bag.

Key words: spawn, spawn run, saw dust, paddy straw

#102 TMC April 2014    Page 03  Copyrighted Material

 

Use of spawn run in different substrates for production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

H. W. J. P. Amarasekara and J. P. Kirthisinghe

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture

 University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

INTRODUCTION

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is an attractive crop in Sri Lanka, as it enables to acquire substrate materials at low prices to conserve our environment by recycling wastes. Therefore, it is a commercially important, predominantly grown edible mushroom variety which widely practices in small-scale cultivation as a self-employment and a profitable agribusiness in Sri Lanka. Pleurotus is an efficient lignin degrading mushroom and can grow and yield well on different types of lignocellulolosic materials. Cultivation of oyster mushroom is very simple and has various advantages such as, it requires low space; low investment cost; easy to propagate; could take income in a short duration. Successful mushroom cultivation depends on three factors; reliable spawn, good substrate, conducive environment (Islam et al., 2009). Most of the growers in mid country buy the` reliable spawn from Department of Agriculture (DOA), Gannoruwa, Sri Lanka. Kirthisinghe and Amarasekera (2012) found that spawn run could be utilised as a planting material for the growers. Oyster mushroom growers in Sri Lanka use saw dust substrate mixture including rice bran, soya flour, or mung bean flour, CaCO3 and MgSO4. The information on the potential use of other locally available cost effective substrates are scarce (Rajapakse et al., 2007). Therefore, this experiment was carried out to find out the possibility of using the grower produce spawn run as the initial planting material and to identify the suitable cost effective substrate to reduce cost of production of oyster mushroom.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The research was conducted in the mushroom unit, University Experimental Station, Dodangolla, Sri Lanka. The primary inoculum was prepared using fresh fruiting body of the mushroom through tissue culture method and multiplied by sub-culturing on sterilized PDA medium in petri dishes, incubated at 28 ˚C of room temperature. Paddy seeds were washed by teepol and boiled for 20 minutes until 25 percent of paddy seed become split. After cooling, 5 percent CaCO3 and 20 percent CaSO4 powder were mixed with boiled paddy seeds. 30 g of paddy seeds were filled into a polypropylene bag and sterilized for 20 minutes in a pressure cooker. Piece of mycelium tissue was inserted into steam-sterilized paddy seeds bags under aseptic condition and incubated at 28 ˚C of room temperature for 7 days until the grains were covered with white mycelia. This grain mycelium mixture is called as ‘spawn’.

The spawn run was prepared using the following method. The substrate was prepared

               #102 TMC April 2014    Page 04  Copyrighted Material

according to the DOA recommendation using 10 kg of saw dust, 1 kg of Rice bran, 100 g of Soya bean, 100 g of mung bean flour, 200 g of CaCO3, and 20 g of MgSO4 for 20 containers .Then bags were sterilized by using a barrel for 3-4 hours and kept for 4 hrs to cool. The spawns were inserted to the bags by using lighted candles to make a suitable environment for inoculation. The inoculated polypropylene bags were kept for 28 days in a dark room to complete the spawn run. After the mycelium run in the substrate and remains white and firm were called as ‘spawn run’.

5 g of spawn of oyster mushroom were used as planting material for treatments 1 and 3. Then 10 g of spawn run were used as the planting material for each in treatments 2 and 4. The experiment was laid according to Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with 10 replicates and 5 bags for each replicate. The treatments were,

T1 - saw dust in polypropylene bags + 5 g of spawn (DOA recommendation)

T2 - saw dust in polypropylene bags + 10 g of spawn run

T3 - paddy straw in polypropylene bags + 5 g of spawn

T4 – paddy straw in polypropylene bags + 10 g of spawn run

22 cm height and 8 cm diameter of polypropylene bags were used for the experiment. Each of the polypropylene bag was filled with 500 g of wet substrate. The substrate for polypropylene bags in treatments 1 and 2 were prepared according to the DOA recommendation using 100 kg of saw dust, 10 kg of Rice bran, 1 kg of Soya bean, 1 kg of mung bean flour, 2 kg of CaCO3, and 200 g of MgSO4 for 200 bags.

The substrate for polypropylene bags in treatments 3 and 4 were prepared according to the DOA recommendation using paddy 80 kg of straw, 10 kg of Rice bran, 1 kg of Soya bean, 1 kg of mung bean flour, 2 kg of CaCO3, and 200 g of MgSO4 for 200 bags.

All the polypropylene bags were sterilised using a barrel. The spawns for treatments 1 and 3 and spawn run for treatments 2 and 4 were inserted to the substrate autoclaved for 3-4 hours by using lighted candles to make a suitable environment for inoculation. Cotton waste, PVC rings and Rubber bands were used to seal the 200 gauges polypropylene bags. The polypropylene bags were sealed and kept for 28 days in a dark room to complete the spawn run. After completing spawn run, the bags were transferred to the cropping room and 20 ˚C temperature was maintained for fruiting body formation. Humidity of bags was accomplished by spraying of water on them twice a day. Natural air was used for mushroom during fructification. To maintain high humidity of 85 percent water was sprayed several times per day. When the pin head have grown to size of 1 cm, the humidity was lowered the 75 percent by passing fresh air through the room. Harvesting was done by twisting and pulling of the mushroom from the substrate until the mycelium remains white and firm. In total, five flushes were harvested for the study.

Days taken from inoculation to completion of spawn run, pin head formation, fruit body formation, the first harvest and the total yield were recorded. Then the  biological efficiency and cost effectiveness were calculated. Data were  analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure by SAS and mean separation was done using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at p= 0.05.

                      #102 TMC April 2014    Page 05  Copyrighted Material

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

There was no significant difference observed among treatments on spawn runing and pin head formation. Time taken for  spawn runing, pin head formation and harvest of the above processes are given in Table 1.

Table 1  - Time taken for spawn runing, pin head formation and harvest

T1

T2

T3

T4

Spawn run (days)

33a

32a

29a

30a

Pin head formation (days)

49a

48a

45a

44a

First flush (days)

51a

50a

47b

46b

First harvest (days)

52a

52a

48b

48b

Total yield per bag (g)

205b

207b

215a

212a

BE%!

32b

35b

44a

45a

CV%

     12

     14

      12

      13

Values within a row followed by a common letter are not significantly different at P=0.05, according to DMRT

Formation of Monokaryon (haploid stage) occurs soon after basidiospore (spawn) germination was observed under the microscope. The short lived monokaryon stage of the Basidiomycotina fused with a compatible monokaryon which form Dikaryon (diploid stage) after 20-26 days in normal mushroom cultivation (Kirthisinghe et al., 2012). The dikaryon is the mycelium that produces the basidiocarp and basidiospore.

Celluosic substance will be degraded very easily by growing mushroom, whereas non cellulosic substances are not easily degraded. The delayed harvesting which resulted in the saw dust substrate as it one of the lignin contian substrates, it require long period  for their decomposition (Pathmashini et al., 2008). The time taken by the mycelia to start pinning after ramification depends on the substrate used. Eventhough there was no significant difference between the two substrates used in this experiment, the substrates such as saw dust with low decomposition rate took a longer period (32-33 days) to colonize completely. The substrates with high decomposition rate took a short period (29-30 days) to colonize completely. A significant difference was observed between the two substrates used in this experiment for the time taken for the first harvest and the total harvest. This may be due to the mycelia remains vegetative for a longer  period which result late pinning and take a longer period for the first harvest.

Cost effectiveness analyze for a small scale mushroom grower indicate that since there was no significant yield difference between  the spawn and spawn run  treatments (Table 1), the growers will be able to save Sri Lankan Rs. 1.00 from each bag (Table 2). Even though there was a significant difference in the cost of production between saw dust and paddy straw in mid country area, it can be varied with the relevant area.

Table 2. Cost of production of 100 bags with saw dust and paddy straw substrates

          Treatment

Cost (Rs.)

T1 - saw dust +  spawn

490a

T2 - saw dust + spawn run

390c

T3 - paddy straw + of spawn

460b

T4 - paddy straw + of spawn run

360d

Values within the column followed by a common letter are not significantly different at P=0.05, according to DMR    #102 TMC April 2014    Page 06  Copyrighted Material

CONCLUSIONS

This study revealed that there was there was no significant difference observed among treatments on  spawn runing and pin head formation. It also showed that the paddy straw is a better substrate compared to saw dust, which has a great impact on growth and gives the first harvest within 29-30 days. The total harvest was also significantly higher in paddy straw substrate compared to saw dust. Therefore, the cost of production can be reduced when using spawn run in paddy straw substrate.

REFERENCES

Islam, M.Z., Rahman, M.H. and Hafiz, F. (2009). Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus flabellatus) on different substrates. International Journal of Sustainable Crop Product. 4: 45-48.

Kirthisinghe, J.P. and Amarasekera, H.W.J.P. (2012). Bottle cultivation for spawn production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) using different substrates. Book of Abstracts of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, 2012, Vol 17, p 233.

Kirthisinghe, J.P., Niroshani, M.K.C., Amarasekera P. (2012). Effect of nitrogen source in substrate for growth, yield and postharvest of oyster mushroom. Sri Lanka –India Conference on Agro Biotechnology for sustainable development. 12-13 March 2012 Colombo. Sri Lanka.

Pathmashini, L., Arulnandhy, V. and Wijeratnam R.S.W. (2008). Cultivation of oyster mushroom (pleurotusostreatus) on saw dust. Ceylon Journal of Science (Biology Science). 37(2):177-182.

Rajapakse, J.C., Rubasingha, P. and Dissanayake, N.N. (2007). The potential of using cost- effective compost mixtures for oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agriculture Research and Extension. 10(1): 29-32.

                                            ----------------------------------------

                            COOKING WITH MUSHROOMS

BY Robin Arnold

TURKEY MUSHROOM CASSEROLE

Ingredients:  2 1/2 c. cooked turkey, 1 c. fresh Shiitake, diced, 3 Tbsp. butter

1 medium onion, diced, 2 c. gravy, 2 c. sour cream, 1 12 oz. pkg. egg noodles, cooked

 Sauté onion and Shiitake in butter; add gravy and sour cream. Stir until smooth and hot but do not let boil. Add turkey to heated sauce. Put noodles into a casserole dish, mix in turkey/mushroom sauce. Top with bread crumbs. Bake about an hour at 350 F.

              #102 TMC April 2014    Page 07  Copyrighted Material

Cultosaurus.........MOD at Shroomotopia says:  "That has many controversial theories of it's beginnings, so I do certainly understand the controversies over mushrooms, their naming, classifications, and all that revolves around basic mushroom biology.  And so, I see that there will always be controversy.  It appears to be inevitable.  Even my favorite, the cyanofriscosa, has recently been given a new name after John Allen. ""

There are no controversies over applying the correct scientific names of mushrooms, it is called "Taxonomy".  It appears you need to learn a few things about mushrooms too.  To use the origin of our universe to compare it to Taxonomy, is not a correct comparison.  The John Allen mushroom is also a wrong comparison.  It actually is named by using proper Taxonomy.  It appears this knowledge is lacking in the case of Red, and now I see, you also.  

A post by Red:  And if you were even Willing to do the research you would find out that I Was Right. Have a nice day and keep your fukt up Opinion to yourself."

You see, its not my fukt up opinion, it is the opinion of Taxonomy.

Not only does he not understand Taxonomy, he does not understand the difference in "Order" and "Genus".  I copy/paste his post here with my reply:

Red says:  "Here is his proof that there is a gilled mushroom in the genus Boletus:"

Taken from: http://blog.mycology.cornell.edu/2006/12/01/paxillus-a-gilled-bolete/

"Using a couple of different keys, I decided that this specimen was Phylloporus rhodoxanthus, a member of the order Boletales. Members of the genus Phylloporus are 'gilled boletes'. They belong to the order Boletales, as opposed to the gilled mushrooms traditionally placed in the order Agaricales. Instead of gills, boletes typically have a spongy hymenophore composed of vertical tubes that create a pored undersurface. Despite Phylloporus' gills, it is also grouped with the Boletales."

Hey Redcap......you just proved what I stated. That mushroom is not in the Genus Boletus. You keep saying I am wrong. That means you say there is a gilled mushroom in the Genus Boletus. Your mushroom is in the Genus Phylloporus. Do you not understand what "Order" and "Genus" mean? I think not. There is no gilled mushroom in the Genus Boletus. I stand by that post. slp/fmrc

You see, there is no controversy, only his lack of proper mycological understanding. 

He also does not understand the difference between Too, To, and Two.  Nor does he understand the difference between There, Their, and They're.  Yeah, he sent me a PM....he has since deleted it.  He asked me to "except" his apology.  Even a third grader knows that this should be "accept".  This is the person who tells me I am wrong, calls me names, and uses disrespectful posts against me.  All of such, by the rules posted, call for the person to be banned.  Well, next thing I know, Red Cap disappears like he has been banned.  Then, swampdweller appears.....and what do you know, it is Red Cap!

           #102 TMC April 2014    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

I am not used to being talked to like that......especially by someone who not only appears to lack mycological knowledge, but also appears to be a high school drop out.  I would not piss on Red if he was on fire.  He must learn that the actions he took were wrong and uncalled for.  As he seems to have gotten away with all his stupidness, and goes right on like nothing he did was wrong, and that he was 100% right, I must see to it that he is punished.  May the record show that it is because of RedCap's lack of punishment by Shroomotopia, I refuse to subject myself to such disrespectful posts ever again, especially by someone of his likeness.  Anyone and yourself can always email me to get my opinion on a mushroom matter.  And I am telling you, no mushroom in the Genus Boletus has gills.

I hope Shroomotopia is satisfied with all of his future gibberish and untrue statements about mushrooms, for this is what you are left with, by your choice. slp/fmrc  

                             -----------------------------------

  A short quick lesson on Scientific Names for Shroomotopia

Several months ago, Red Cap, now known as swampdweller, posted disrespectful posts at me, calling me names and using abusive language.  According to their rules, a person who does this will be banned.  So much for rules.  Swampdweller continued to say that there was a mushroom in the Genus Boletus that had gills and that I should do my research.  Truth is, he is the one that needs to do his research and study mycology so that he at least can understand scientific names.  Even a mod there said controversies and different ideas about things would always exist.  Hey, there is no controversy about this.  It appears none of them understand anything about the scientific name for a mushroom.  So here it is:

A scientific name has two parts.  Take for instance Amanita muscaria.  The first part, Amanita, states what genus the mushroom is in.  The second part, muscaria, states what species in Amanita the mushroom is in.  So the scientific name tells us that this mushroom is in the Genus Amanita and its species is muscaria.  Everybody still with me?

Now swampdweller's mushroom, the one that has gills, scientific name is Phylloporus rhodoxanthus.  He even posted this information.  Now this scientific name tells us that this mushroom is in the Genus Phylloporus......not Boletus.  If it was in the Genus Boletus, it would be named Boletus rhodoxanthus.  So, now all the "controversy" can now be put aside.  Now everyone understands why there is no mushroom in the Genus Boletus that has gills.  Maybe not.  Seems to be some really hard headed people sometimes.  It appears that swampdweller lacks

much mycological knowledge and continues to stand by false information he has placed on the internet.  I for one have stopped posting there and would not go there to get any information on mushrooms.  No since in wasting my time where no one wants to listen to me but listen to someone who has no idea of what he is talking about.  I stop by http://www.entheogen-network.com/forums/index.php at least once a day for anyone who has a question and wants the truth in an answer.  Just scroll down the “Mush Room”.  slp/fmrc

Taken from #47 TEO FEB 2014                                                                                                                    

                                                  Mycology in the Media

Marshall E. Deutsch

 Natural History for October describes the relationship between “blue stain” fungus and mountain pine beetles: “A female beetle carries the spores of these symbiotic fungi in mycangia, shallow pits in her mouth and along her body adapted to hold them. The blue stain fungi spread through the gallery, and into the outer portions of the wood, clogging the phloem and the deeper vascular tissue…” The fungi break down the wood, making it a better food source for the beetles. The

              #102 TMC April 2014    Page 09  Copyrighted Material

same issue tells of white pine blister rust “a peculiar Eurasian fungus that invaded North America in 1910.  It moves across a tree’s limbs like necrosis. . .”

                Fungi are up to no good in Jordan, according to Science for 8 November wherein is described the spread of “Panama disease” which is caused by a soil fungus that “wiped out banana plantations by the mid-20th century, until they were replanted with a resistant crop.” Twenty years ago a new variant has arisen and spread.

                As for fungi attacking animals,, NewScientist (NS) for 16 November reports that 1-octen-3-ol (known as mushroom alcohol because of the smell it imparts to, e.g. Agaricus bisporus) may be linked to Parkinon’s disease, as suggested by the fact that it causes “degeneration of dopamine neurons and movement disorders in fruit flies.” (This study is also reported in Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) for November 25.) For your safety you may wish to turn these mushrooms over to your editor if you have any. And here’s a question posed by a reader in the same issue:”I have an oval bath sponge about 2 centimetres thick . . . .Black mould is growing on the sides, particularly the long sides rather than the rounded ends, but not on the larger faces. Why is this?”

                In The New Yorker for November 18, we learn that one of the advantages of proposed state-sanctioned suppliers of cannabis is that their product would be tested for fungal contamination. Finally for November, Larry Millman calls our attention to a LiveScience article dated the 25th wherein is described a demonstration that moisture evaporating from mushrooms creates breezes which facilitate sore dispersal. (This is also subsequently noted and illustrated in Scientific American for February.)

                Fungi made it to the cover of Scientific American for December, wherein we find an article on Cryptococcus gatti, a yeast which infects trees and people and is responsible for outbreaks among the latter in Vancouver Island, Washington and Oregon. It lives on the bark of trees and in the soil around them, but goes deeper, even infecting the brain, in people. Then again, the far longer list of benefits bestowed on us by fungi is elaborated in an article in NS for 7 December, As mycologist Lynne Boddy is quoted as stating “Without fungi, planet Earth wouldn’t work. You would be up to your armpits in dead stuff.” And also, as pointed out in C&EN for December 9, fungal mycelium can be used to make a substitute for polystyrene foam packaging. Fungus could control mosquitoes as suggested in BBC News for 17 December. Therein, we learn that Metarhizium anisopliae, when added to water where mosquitoes breed, infects the mosquitoes, but doesn’t germinate, and just stays as spores packed in the body, presumably spreading upon the death of the host.

                Science for 17 January describes experiments to unravel just how Ophiocordyceps unilateralis “causes an ant to leave its colony, climb a tree, chomp down on a twig or the underside of a leaf and die…” Fungal proteins which may be responsible for these effects have been identified.    Less spectacular to an observer are the effects of Coccidioides immitis on people who inhale its spores. As described in The New Yorker for January 20. “Once in the lung, the spore circles up into a spherule, defined by a chitinous cell wall and filled with a hundred or so baby endospores. When the spherule is sufficiently full, it ruptures, releasing endospores and stimulating an acute inflammatory response that disrupts blood flow to the tissue and can lead to necrosis. The endospores, each of which will become a new spherule, travel through                                                                                                                                                                                                the blood and lymph systems, allowing the cocci to spread. . .”    Marshall E. Deutsch

             #102 TMC April 2014    Page 10  Copyrighted Material

                         Shiitake Mushrooms Do Not Make Good Spores
Shiitake mushrooms do not produce very good spores for growing, even though there may be a heavy spore drop.  Very few if any, ever germinate.  To my knowledge, there has never been a wild strain found out in the wild.  When you think of all the shiitake growing that goes on, you would think with all those spores in the air, they would be growing all in the woods.....but this is not the case.  FMRC offers shiitake spores for comparison just in case someone thinks they may have found a wild strain growing.  I once asked an old Chinese associate "Well how do they ever get new strains?"  He said they gather up millions and millions of the spores and run them all at the same time on media.  Many times, there is no growth spotted.  Then, sometimes, a small spot of growth is noted.  This is isolated and tested to see if it is indeed a good fruiting strain.  So, I would say that if you start off with shiitake spores, chances are, you will never have a good culture.  You should either clone a fresh one from the store or order plugs for inoculating logs to get a good shiitake culture.  slp/fmrc

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       #102 TMC April 2014    Page 11  Copyrighted Material

                   MUSHROOM QUIZ  "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of this Journal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  No phone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by 1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail).  The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to this Journal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in the following edition (unless you state "Not to publish your name").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with your knowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #101 "TMC": What is the Scientific Name for the “Horse Mushroom”?

Last Issue’s Answer:  Agaricus arvensis 

Winner with Correct “MQ” Answer:  J Bird

"MQ" For This Issue #102:  What is “denuded”? 

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               #102 TMC April 2014    Page 12  Copyrighted Material

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)
        Color photograph for #102, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                      April 2014                                   

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                  #102 TMC April 2014    Page 13  Copyrighted Material

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                     #102 TMC April  2014

                                             

            
 

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#101 “TMC” Copyright 2014    

ISSN: 1078-4314

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              The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)

     The Official Mushroom Journal for the “Independent

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                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

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                                   C O N T E N T S

TMC Journal Subscriptions and other Journal Information.............................01

Calocybe indica (The Milky Mushroom), The Cultivation of............................02

Condensation on Petri Dish Lids.....................................................................02

Notes on Pasteurization and Sterilization………………………………………..02

Amanita phalloides found................................................................................02

HEPA Filters And Cloning...............................................................................03

Mushrooms Make Their Own Breeze..............................................................03

Microscopes....................................................................................................04

Mycology in the Media....................................................................................04

     Strange Mushrooms In Iraq.......................................................................04

     Fungi and Shale Oil...................................................................................04

     Spider Fungus...........................................................................................05

     Salamanders attacked by fungus..............................................................05

Cooking With Mushrooms..............................................................................06

How To Place An Ad In TMC.........................................................................07

CONGRATULATIONS TO Winners of FREE TMC Subscriptions.................07

Culture Flask..................................................................................................08

FREE Mushroom Spore Print Sample S0341, Coprinus comatus.................08

Mushroom Quiz..............................................................................................08

Color Photograph Lepiota americana............................................................09

           

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                  #101 TMC January 2014    Page 01  Copyrighted Material

Calocybe indica (The Milky Mushroom), The Cultivation of:

If you have experience growing Oyster Mushrooms, you are a jump ahead.  These mushrooms grow on what Oyster Mushrooms grow on and many other available media like corn cobs.  It does well on hard wood sawdust and blocks of sawdust.  It does well on many different straws that are pasteurized.  Fresh Straw or dry, should be cut in small one inch size and soaked.  Hold mycelium run at 80 to 85 F.  Keep in the Dark.  Keep Relative Humidity above 82%.  When fully taken, which should happen by 20 days, case with one inch of casing mixture:

75% Potting Soil and 25% Sand

Adjust pH to 7.8-7.9

Pasteurize in Pressure Cooker 15 lb. for ONE hour

Start Fresh Air Exchange and 12 Hour Light daily.

In about 10 days after casing, the mycelium will appear on the surface.  

These changes start Primordia.  This Pinning should occur in 3 to 5 days.

They are needle shaped.  They mature in another 7 days. 

                              Notes on Pasteurization and Sterilization:

These are methods used to kill Contaminants

Pasteurization:

One easy way:

Boil Water in a large, wide mouth pan or drum.

Pack presoaked Straw in pillow covers.

Hold under water for One Hour.

Sterilization:

This is when item is placed in Pressure Cooker at 15 lbs. for ONE hour.

This mycelium is fragile to colder temperatures.  If temperature drops to 40 F or below, it will die.  Store Cultures at 55 F to extend storage.  

Best way to get a live culture is to find some fresh ones at your local market.  Then, make a culture clone.  If they don't have it, ask them to get some in.  If you find someone who sells the Live Culture, they should not ship it in the winter months.  FMRC does not have spores available at this time.

I saw a price of $29.00 per pound for these mushrooms on 11/10/2013 at Cavete, Philippines.  slp/fmrc

                                         ------------------------------------------

                                       Condensation on Petri Dish Lids

One of the best ways to stop this is to store your Petri Dishes upside down.  This also keeps the agar moist longer.  I always store like this.  slp/fmrc

                                        --------------------------------------------

                                         Amanita phalloides

       Perhaps the most deadliest mushroom of all, found in New York City

I have received the following information:

Vivien Tartter, who has just recently started hunting wild mushrooms, found and photographed an

Amanita phalloides the week of Oct. 21, 2013.  She found the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides)

                           #101 TMC January 2014    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

in Van Cortlandt Park, in the Bronx, NYC!  This is a mid to late fall mushroom in this area - and eating just one can be lethal!  We are trying to map its appearance and spread in NYC. It was not that long ago, they were only found in California, under Oak Trees.  Now they have spread and are being found under other kinds of trees.  Many think this mushroom got its start back in the 1940’s when California bought thousands of Oak Saplings from Europe.  It is thought that this mushroom’s mycelium was on the roots of these young trees.  slp/fmrc 

                                      ----------------------------------------

                                      HEPA Filters And Cloning

When preparing a sterile piece of flesh from a mushroom found out in the wild, the air currents actually blow contaminants all around that are on the mushroom.  When holding the mushroom and moving it all around, this aids even more contaminants being knocked off and put in the air currents.  This will many times lead to having a contaminated piece of clone tissue.  If you have any opened Agar Petri Dishes or Sterile Grain Jars, and a wild mushroom is in the area, only bad things can happen.  A Transfer Box may prove to be better when making clone tissue transfer because of the lack of moving air.  There are some good ideas posted at www.mushroomsfmrc.com.  Just click "Mushroom Research Papers" off of the Main Menu and scroll on down to "How To Build An Inoculation/Transfer" Box .  There are some other good tips there too.

                                     -------------------------------------

Mushrooms Make Their Own Breeze

To Help Spread Spores

Mushrooms can make a slight spore-dispersing breeze to spread their genetic material even if the air is calm. Katherine Harmon reports
Mushrooms have to scatter their spores to make little mushrooms. And we've long assumed that they rely on a friendly breeze for spore spreading. But a new study shows that mushrooms can make their own spore-casting wind. Fluid mechanics researchers trained high-speed video cameras on common Shiitake and oyster mushrooms. The scientists discovered that the mushroom spores floated off even when the air was calm. They enlisted mathematical models to solve the mystery. Turns out that before the spore dispersal, the mushrooms released water vapor. This moisture cooled the air around the 'shroom, causing a convective dynamic that got the air moving. Just this faint fungal breeze was enough to carry the spores away from the parent. The findings were presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics in Pittsburgh. [Emilie Dressaire, et al., " Control of Fluidic Environments by Mushrooms "] This discovery suggests that mushrooms aren't simply in a race to produce the most spores. Evolution also engineered a good way to spread them.  Sent in by David West.

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                     #101 TMC January 2014    Page 03  Copyrighted Material

                                                       Microscopes

A Post Made:  It does seem like the lenses need cleaned or something. It's kind f cloudy looking and some specs that don't go away when looking through it. But I did get to look at some spores, pretty cool.

The "cloudy", if when on higher power, is caused because those lens are not really high grade lens.  To get the good higher power lens, you have to put out the money because of their costs.  A power of 1,000 X and up, is best for spores.  This will let you view all the important spore features and allow any micrometer (devise used to measure spores) you might be using, to be used properly.  Any spots that can't be cleaned out, must be inside.  You might have to removed and wipe the other side.
Here is a good way to get a really good scope, for a cheaper price:
Call your local veterinarian, doctor's office, or hospital, and ask them who does the work on their microscopes when they need repairing.  Then, call this person.  They many times will have microscopes that the bill has not been paid and it has not been picked up.  If he is tired of waiting, he will want to sell the scope to recover is labor and parts.  There is your good deal!  Good scope hunting. 

Hope this helps.  And, if you, or anyone, wants to take some good microscopy photographs:

Set your camera for normal "automatic".  Then, put the camera lens right up to the eyepiece.  You have to move the camera around slightly to get the picture lined up.  Hold camera very still or use a tripod.  Takes great pictures that look like they were taken using expensive equipment.  slp/fmrc

                                    ------------------------------------------

    Mycology in the Media

Marshall E.  Deutsch

                In Natural History for July/August, we are cautioned against stepping off the beaten path when out hiking in the western United States, even when the area looks like bare dry ground. This area may not have turned into a sandbox because it consists of a crust formed by a living community, of which “the most common inhabitants include cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi, and algae.” And in  Z Magazine for the same time period, an Iraqi physician in Basra complains that “It is like Chernobyl here: the genetic effects are new to us; the mushrooms grow huge. . .”

                But Science for 16 August cheers us up with news that two genes have been cloned that offer resistance to “Ug99, a particularly devastating strain of wheat stem rust fungus. . . which could potentially threaten food security.” Conventional scientific procedures identified these genes, but another article in this issue describes a Facebook game which debuted 12 August and which enlists players to match nucleotide sequences to a reference genome. It is hoped that players of the game will help to identify genetic variants of ash trees which are associated with resistance of the trees to the ash dieback fungus, Chalara fraxinea, or genetic variants of the fungus which are associated with its lethality.

                And here’s what we learn from Science for 23 August: “The long-held view of the origin of shale oil—a buried leaf cooking for 70 million years under pressure from mud and sand—might leave out a vital component of the process: fungi. A new experiment suggests that endophytic fungi—fungi living symbiotically inside plants—can generate hydrocarbons as they eat away at their decaying hosts. Gary Strobel, a plant microbiologist says that fungi could have speeded up oil production by tens of millions of years.” Use of a promising organism has already been patented. And, of course, fungi can speed up food production, as Scientific American for September notes in only one short article (entitled “super dirt”) in this special food issue.                                                                                                                                                             

                           #101 TMC January 2014    Page 04  Copyrighted Material 

 In The Boston Globe for September 2, we learn of a video shot by a Hampshire College student which tells of (shows?) a fungus that infects “cellar spiders” and subsequently pops out of their leg joints and “makes this crazy marshmallow pom-pom fuzz.”  And from Global Times for September 4, via Larry Millman, we learn of and see pictures of “Buddhist statue spouts miracle mushrooms.” The statue is made of camphorwood.  

                Nor are salamanders safe from fungi. NewScientist (NS) for 7 September tells of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, which has almost wiped out fire salamanders in the Netherlands. It kills them by eating through their skin and exposing them to lethal bacterial infections. Cryptococcus neoformans, on the other hand, does the actual killing of its (sometimes human) prey by itself. Live Science for September 10 describes how this yeast reproducesl  unisexually from two identical parents. What’s the point? In the process, some of the descendants end up with extra copies of some chromosomes and this can result in traits such as pigmentation and drug resistance differing from those of the parents.

                In NS for September 14, a reader expresses concern over white bathroom grouting turning black. The editor and no fewer than 3 other respondents chime in on how to deal with Aspergillus niger. Need I say more? Less widely known is how to deal with Chalara, which causes ash [tree] dieback. BBCNews for 12 September describes one way to start, which is to map the ash tree genome and look for the genes which convey resistance to this pathogen. Much more difficult than finding a 3 kg Bolete in a Polish forest, as reported by BBC News on 26 September! And very unlikely to lead to a dangerous blunder such as that made by Arizona Highways for October, which listed Amanita muscaria as being deemed edible. When this was reconsidered by the editors, they removed the issue from newsstands.

                Under “Findings,” Harper’s Magazine for October lists a number of disasters attributable to fungi, including “The widespread presence of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus fungi in tropical wheat stores was increasing the viral loads of the HIV-positive” but no explanation of why such a connection exists. Geomyces and cryptosporidiosis are mentioned in the same paragraph, but less cryptically.

                Which brings us to an article in The New York Times (Times) for October 3, which describes commercial matsutake picking in Oregon. Larry Millman, who called it to our attention, points out that the article fails to note that the reason the bottom has dropped out of this market is that the Japanese no longer mythologize the matsutake, but simply regard it as a tasty mushroom. Norway, however, is showing increasing respect for mycology. To quote from an email from Larry, “Leif Ryvarden, the world’s most eminent polypore expert, has just been awarded a Knighthood in Norway.” Larry says that he thinks awards such as this given to mycologists automatically make Norway a more civilized country than the United States. He has also explored the interface between mycology and government in his recent book (reviewed elsewhere in this issue) in which he writes that “Russians may be eating more mushrooms than anyone else, but they’re also eating more of the wrong mushrooms. This has gotten worse in recent years. With so-called democracy, shabby identification skills have become available to all.”

                Chemical & Engineering News for October 21 reports on the commercialization of the mycelium-based packaging which I panned in a recent issue. Could I have been wrong and steered you away from a profitable investment? We’ll see.

                But back to judging countries by examining how they relate to mushrooms. Anent an article on Greenland’s fungus-illustrated stamps in Spore Prints for September, Larry observes that “Greenlanders are perhaps the world’s most mycophobic people (they think mushrooms are used as a soap by a monstrous creature called a qivitoq) which makes it rather ironic that they manufacture so many mushroom stamps.”

                Both Marcia Jacob and a member whose initials are LM called our attention to an article on the front page of The Wall Street Journal for October 31 which makes a big deal about the fact that Estonian mushroom collectors don’t give away their sites. Not like us!

                Finally we note that “First farming fungi found in soil” heads an article in NS for 12 November. It describes the relationship between Morchella crassipes and Pseudomonas putida. Apparently the fungus first feeds the bacteria and then eats them.      Marshall E. Deutsch

                     #101 TMC January 2014    Page 05  Copyrighted Material

MUSHROOM COOKING TIPS......

          3 cups fresh is approximately 1 1/2 oz. dried.

Hydration times vary per mushroom; usually around 15-20 minutes. Using warm liquid speeds the process.

Other varieties of mushrooms may be substituted in the recipes; it will merely change the resulting flavor.

Never over-indulge when trying a new variety.

Store unused dry mushrooms in a jar that can be sealed, away from sun and moisture.

Store any left over hydrated mushrooms in a paper bag, (after squeezing out any excess water), put in the refrigerator and use within a few days.

Squeeze out excess water after hydrating.

Water used to hydrate can often have much of the mushroom flavor; store in freezer until use as gravy or soup stock.

Try a variety by itself or with sautéed onions as a side-dish. Sometimes the flavor of the mushroom can get lost when added to more complicated mixtures, such as spaghetti sauce. Trying them first may tell you if you would add them to a more complex recipe.

          Invite a friend over and impress them with your culinary talents!

MUSHROOM COVERED DEER

Ingredients:

6 pieces of venison tenderloin, 1/2 oz. Porcini (King Bolete) *, 1 tsp. onion powder

1 tsp. onion powder, 1/4 tsp. ground black pepper, Pinch of salt.

Powder Porcini in coffee grinder. Mix all ingredients, except the tenderloins, in a large zip-lock baggie. Add venison and fill the baggie slightly with air so that the pieces get fairly well covered. Sauté in olive oil until desired readiness. Serve with fresh salad.  * Shiitake powder may be substituted.

                     #101 TMC January 2014    Page 06  Copyrighted Material

Advertising in The Mushroom Culture is just good rifle shot advertising.  Plus, when it is posted up for download at our website, www.mushroomsfmrc.com, hundreds of thousands of people see it!  Pretty good deal, when you think about it.  If its Mushroom Related, and you want to sell it, try this:

                             How  To  Place  An  Ad  In  “TMC”

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For one time (1 issue)…Full page $200.00, ½ page $100.00, ¼ page $50.00, 40 word ad $20.00.

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Books Available Only From FMRC’s Book Store………And Now It Is On Line For FREE Viewing

                  Mushroom Books You Never Knew Existed
For a complete list of FMRC’s publications, videos, and a listing of all the Back Issues of "TMC" with a summary of each ones contents, see the FMRC “MAIN” Catalog posted On Line at our website www.mushroomsfmrc.com then click “Catalogs” off of our Main Menu.  Then just scroll down and you will see all we have to offer.  Also, check out our “Store”. The down load or copy/paste is free.          -------------------------------------------

                 Submitting Spore Samples for This Journal

Submitting spore samples for Journal entries, entitles you to one year’s free subscription to the "Physical" Hard Copy issues published by FMRC.  Only select prints that you are sure of identification.  Do not submit samples you cannot identify.  "TMC" and "TEO" ("THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC) and "TEONANACATL", The International Journal Of Psychoactive Mushrooms TEO), both published by FMRC, remain the only "color" mushroom journals that come with mushroom spore print samples.  This is mainly due to reader collection and the fact it is quite troublesome to place the said samples into the Journals.  To this date, I know of no one else who has tried taking on this task.  Mushroom prints should be taken on paper.  Any dark colored spores can be taken on white paper.  Light colored or white spores

should be taken on a dark colored paper.  This will ensure contrast and make the spores easy to see.  Seven to nine complete sheets should be submitted.  Place

and affix (with staple or tape) cover sheet over each sheet of prints.  Send date and where collected.  Wild edibles make the best submissions for the "TMC" Journal.  If you wish to submit a controversial type, like Psilocybe cyanescens,

these said types may be submitted (or we will forward) to "TEONANACATL", The International Journal of Psychoactive Mushrooms (TEO).  Because these issues have this unique feature of mushroom spore print samples to aid in the correct identification of mushrooms collected out in the wild, they have a cutoff of 3,000 subscribers.  This makes original Hard Copy back issues of "TMC" and "TEO" rare and the most valuable to collect.

CONGRATULATIONS TO THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE
Because of your input to this issue of "TMC", you are awarded a year’s free subscription.  We all thank you for your very helpful input: David West for
”Mushrooms Make Their Own Breeze”, Mark Forhand for correct “MQ” Answer, Color Photograph of Lepiota americana by Joel Hensley, KY, FREE spore samples by R. Arnold, and Dennis Forth for correct "MQ". Answer.

                  #101 TMC January 2014    Page 07  Copyrighted Material              

CULTURE  FLASK…….. Is this your last Issue on Subscription?            

                                                                

For Physical "TMC" HARD COPY Subscriptions That Contain Spore Samples
IF YOUR CULTURE FLASK HAS A "RED" CONTAMINANT IN IT,

THIS IS YOUR LAST ISSUE!  Send $30 to renew your subscription ($50 US Dollars for Out Of Country), for another year's subscription.  The "RED" contaminant is your only reminder, other than your mailing label saying "00" issues left after your first name.  As we value your support and interests, please send payment now while it is on your mind.  This way, "TMC" can continue and you will never miss an issue.  After all, it is your Journal.

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Mushroom Spore Print sample For #101 TMC JAN 2014                                                          "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"  
Coprinus comatus, “The Shaggy Mane” 
EDIBILITY –  Choice Good Edible.  Free print samples provided by Robin Arnold.  Collected 10/5/13          FMRC’s Catalog Number ………………………#SO341

How To Win A Year’s Free Subscription To "TMC"
If you see any article about mushrooms, past or present, and you think others may like to read about it, send it in.  If it is used in "TMC", you get the free subscription.  If you find a large stand of a particular species of mushroom, and are able to collect 7 to 10 good full sheets of spore prints (enough to place samples in "TMC"), send them in.  If they are accepted, they will be placed in

"TMC", and you get the free subscription.  If you send anything in that has to do with mushrooms, and it is used (Mail Call letters do not apply), you get the free subscription.  If you do not want your name mentioned, please state so and we will honor your wishes.  Free subscriptions are physical issues with spore print samples and 4" X 6" color photographs.

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MUSHROOM QUIZ  "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of this Journal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  No phone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by 1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail).  The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to this Journal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in the following edition (unless you state "Not to publish your name").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with your knowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #100 "TMC"What does the term “Toroid” mean?

Last Issue’s Answer:  A bulge or knot.  

Winner with Correct “MQ” Answer:  Mark Forhand

"MQ" For This Issue #101:  What is the Scientific Name for the “Horse Mushroom”?       

                               

   

                #101 TMC January 2014    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)
        Color photograph for #101, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                      January 2014                                  

                                   Photograph Copyrighted by FMRC  

                                         Lepiota americana

                         Photograph taken by Joel Hensley, KY.

                                                  

   

                  #101 TMC January 2014    Page 09  Copyrighted Material

                      Florida  Mycology  Research  Center (FMRC)

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                     #101 TMC January  2014

                                             

#100 “TMC” Copyright 2013    

ISSN: 1078-4314

For October 2013                            $15.00

     THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE                            

             The Journal of MushroomCultivation (TMC)

    The Official Mushroom Journal for the “Independent

              Mushroom Grower’s Network”(IMGN)

                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

To learn more about IMGN, see www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html,or write to FMRC to get complete information on this old and unique mushroomassociation…many valuable benefits.

___ This is a "RESTRICTED" Issue. It contains all spore prints and photographs.

___  This is a"NON-RESTRICTED" Issue.  Itcontains no mushroom spore prints.

___  This is a"REPRINT"/"Photo Copy" Issue.  It may not contain prints or pictures.  Published by:          FloridaMycology ResearchCenter (FMRC)

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EDITORS:          Youthe reader

                   Over 7,000 IMGN Members 

         Marshall E. Deutsch:  Articles Takenfrom "The Bulletin Of

                                    The BostonMycological Club” and other recent references                                

                                to fungi encountered during theeditor’s quotidian activities

                  Cooking Editor: Robin Arnold

                  Chief Editor:  Stephen L.Peele, Curator FMRC

It is official from the USDA:  The 2011/2012 USA Mushroom Cash Crop was over$1 Billion!!!  There were only 279 registeredgrowers!!!  Maybe you should check out“IMGN” and start getting your share!

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                                             CO N T E N T S

TMC Journal Subscription and other JournalInformation……………01

Mycology In The Media……………………………….………………….02

     Pendulous lichens…………………………………………………….01

     Psilocybin use and its history………………………………………..02

     Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiaethe official microbe...02

     Irish potato crop……………………………………………………….01

     Treating frogs with a bacterium……………………………………...01

     Truffle’s black magic flavor…………………………………………..01

     Dr. Pollock’s Death……………………………………………………02

     Cooking With Mushrooms……………………………………………04

     How Mushroom Spores Are SpreadAbout The World……………05

Antidote For Amanitamuscaria and Muscarine………….…..………05

How To Place An AdIn TMC……………………………………………06

Submitting SporesTo This Journal……………………………………..06

CONGRATULATIONSto FREE Subscription Winners………………07

Culture Flask……IsThis Your Last Issue………………...……………07

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                      #100 TMC October 2013    Page 01  CopyrightedMaterial

                                                   Mycology in the Media

Marshall E. Deutsch

                                                                                                                                                                             In an article entitled “Mining the Boreal North,” AmericanScientist for March-April presents information so interesting that Ishouldn’t have missed mentioning it in last quarter’s column. It describes theconflict between the native Sámi of Scandinavia and Swedish timber companieswhose removal of older spruce forest deprived reindeer of the pendulous lichenwhich provided the latter with winter food. It also tells how smoke fromsmelters “contained heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, which were capturedby lichen and then accumulated in reindeer and the people who ate them.”

               But that’s not the only reference to pendulous lichens I should have includedin my last column. Natural History for April described old-man’s-beardlichens in Nepal anddescribes the same lichen on the shoreof Lake Superior as being“an ethereal light-green lichen” which is “very sensitive to air pollution.”

               Psilocybin use and its history are discussed in NYU Alumni Magazine’sSpring issue in an article promising publication of the results of an ongoingstudy of psilocybin’s use in treating cancer-related anxiety. And AmericanLaboratory’s contribution to mycology in its May issue is the revelationthat the electron micrograph on its April cover was of air dried green breadmold, while Natural History for the month presents more evidence thatthe “historic spread of [Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, (Bd)]has been linked to global trade in frogs [particularly Xenopus laevis,which can survive a Bd infection] and the subsequent  releaseof many in the wild.”  Science for 10 May reports the same story.

               Finally some official recognition for a fungus! Chemical & EngineeringNews (C&EN) for May 13 reports that the Oregon House ofRepresentatives has unanimously passed a resolution to make brewer’s yeast, Saccharomycescerevisiae the official microbe of the state. Then again, The Weekfor May 17 manages to have a full-page discussion of “The ecosystem inside you”with many references to bacteria but none to fungi. This is more than compensatedfor by two articles on the web. LiveScence for 22 May focuses on ourfungal companions (particularly those on our feet) and Nature.com for 22May gives a glimpse of the true role played by fungi: “Eleven core-body and armsites were dominated by fungi of the genus Malassezia . . .By contrast,three foot sites—plantar heel, toenail and toe web—showed high fungaldiversity.”

               Laura Reiner calls our attention to a web article on 21 May describing howscientists have recently sequenced the genome of the strain of Phytophthorainfestans which ravaged the Irish potato crop between 1845 and 1852. Thiswas accomplished using dried potato leaves which had been preserved in aherbarium since 1847.

               Using probiotics to prevent disease seems more advanced for frogs than forpeople. American Scientist for May-June reports that treating frogs witha bacterium called Janthinobacterium lividum reliably protected themfrom chytridiomycosis. The bacterium produces violacein, which inhibits chytridfungal growth.    

               The June Smithsonian loaded with fungal references. Therein, we learnthat India has ceased usinggrenades containing a very hot pepper known as Bhut Jolokia against protestersin Kashmir because the powdered chili is proneto fungal rot. Elsewhere in the issue, Mimi Sheraton muses on the enhancementof wild mushrooms with butter or horseradish cream and avers that  “Theonly way to really grasp and remember the [black Perigord] truffle’s blackmagic flavor and exquisitely overripe, vaguely evil aroma is at least once tobite into one without any enhancement other than the kiss of butter or baconand brandy that were brushed on before the truffle was wrapped in parchment andplaced in a metal pan to be roasted under white ashes”. She emphasizes thatthis must be done with Tuber melanosporum rather than white Albatruffles.

               Later in the same issue we encounter “Yeasts of the Southern Wild” andbuttermilk drops, which are doubly dependent on fungi, while a book reviewnotes that the untimely death of Lord Carnarvon following his disturbance ofKing Tutankhamen’s tomb was more likely to have

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

been caused by a fungus found in batguano than by evil spirits. The untimely death of impatiens plants can also beblamed on a fungus according to The Boston Globe for June 12, whichnotes a warning by state officials that “Impatiens downy mildew…infects theflowers and causes them to die, but does not affect other types of plants orflowers... . . The first sign of infection are leaves that appear slightlyyellow or off-color, with small, white powder-like spores on the underside ofthe leaves.”

               The Week for June 14 doesn’t mention fungi in a piece about why frogsand other amphibians are disappearing, but does discuss our fungal inhabitantsin part as follows: “Researchers recently set out to map our fungi, anddiscovered that our feet harbor more than 100 types of fungi, 80 of which liveon our heels alone. Our head and trunk, by contrast are dominated by a singlegenus of fungus called Malassezia, which can cause dandruff. On average,two to 32 types of fungi reside on other areas of the body, including thehands, elbows, thighs and groin. Most of that fungi [sic] is harmless and mayeven protect us from invading microbes that cause diseases or fungal infectionslike athlete’s foot.”

               If you were interested in getting rid of these friendly fungi, you might haveto do for yourself what the Ecuadorean government is doing for frogs. Accordingto NewScientist (NS) dated 15 June, they are collectingamphibians and keeping them in temperature-controlled fungus-free “life rafts.”The same issue describes the use of fungi for packaging material as wasdescribed in The New Yorker for May 20 and criticized in a separatearticle in this Bulletin. The criticisms don’t apply to using fungi topackage people (i.e., build domiciles) as carried out by Richard Schiffman,described in Slate for June 23 and called to our attention by LauraReiner.

               And, if you’re interested in fighting your fungal symbionts, you may beinterested in C&EN for June 10 wherein is described a way ofmodifying amphotericin B to make it less toxic to you. Slime molds, however,are so intelligent, that it might be wiser not to fight them, but to takeadvantage of their intelligence, as described in NS dated June 22,wherein we learn that Physarum polvcephalum, in addition to finding theshortest paths between nutrients, can function as a memristor, a variableresistor whose resistance can be set by the application of a suitable voltageand which “remembers” the setting when the voltage is turned off.

               Marcia Jacob calls our attention to an article in the Wall Street Journalfor June 27 which describes a popular videogame in Japan that features growingmushrooms, and includes a dancing mushroom. The featured mushrooms are not theones familiar to BMC members,  but are more than 200 characters which arevariants of the nameko, a slimy but very popularmushroom.       

               Science for 28 June publishes a correction to a previous depiction of apartial modern tree of life. A fungus (yeast) retains its place as a primaryancestor of multicellular creatures. And NS for 29 June describesdo-it-yourself science projects of some readers. These include “collectingwild mushrooms and catching the spores on agar plates to try to grow spawn fromthem.”

               I find it hard to picture caribou subsisting on lichen, even lichen danglingfrom tree branches, but National Wildlife for June/July provides theeven harder-to-picture description of musk oxen digging through snow “to get totheir food source—lichens growing on rocks beneath the snowcover.”                                                                    

               A note in the July CAP Today suggests (to me, anyway) that carrying a UVlamp might help in identifying fungi. It certainly does help in identifyingfungal infections of fingernails and toenails, which, when irradiated withultraviolet light can be identified “by their tubular or annular shapes withfluorescence surrounding them.”

Harper’s magazine for Julyhas it all in an article on the mysterious death of “Steven Pollock, aphysician and pioneering mycologist,” who was an acquaintance of Gary Lincoff.The article also contains a reference to a mysterious tape recording referredto by Paul Stamets and the author’s analysis of possible clues on this tape tothe circumstances of Pollock’s death. Paul Stamets pops up again in Discovermagazine for July, which was called to our attention by Joel

           #100 TMC October 2013    Page 03  CopyrightedMaterial

Kershner.  An articletherein contains an interesting and detailed explanation of Paul’s many ideason mycorestoration and tells of how he “trained [i.e., selectively bred} Metarhiziumanisopliae, which kills termites and carpenter ants when its spores aresprayed on them directly,” so that it lagged in spore production and could begrown on rice, which would attract ants that carry it back to their nest. Heused the infected rice to rid his house of the ants.

               Reading the book The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, I kept wishing fora photograph of the wife so I could judge for myself whether I might make thesame mistake. The Discover article doesn’t suffer from this error andshows Stamets wearing a hat in a sidebar entitled “The Man Who Mistook HisMushroom for a Hat.” It tells how the spongy layer of Fomes fomentariuscan be processed into a warm, feltlike fabric, as well as being useful as afire starter under the name “amadou.” And a third reference to hats (a hattrick?) occurs in NS for 6 July, wherein a reader states that herhusband has a hat made of bracket fungus, which he bought in Hungary.

               Jean Palmer sends us a Smithsonian web item from July 17 which recountsthe debates over fossil organisms known as Prototaxites and illustrates theauthor’s slant with its title: “Long Before Trees Overtook the Land, Earth wasCovered by Giant Mushrooms,” but presents other possibilities which explainthese fossils. Which brings us to The  Week for July 19, wherein itis explained to us that “artichoke oysters” on a menu were made “by frying upoyster mushrooms and presenting them on artichoke leaves topped with ‘caviar’made from kelp,” and that a “magical buffet” in Nanjing featured fungus soupand salted duck. 

               As for aspiration, rather than oral ingestion, of molds, NS for 20 Julyinforms us that the Jubillee line, the youngest of the London Underground linesis “mouldier than the much older Central and  Bakerloo lines.” But thisdoes not seem to be a threat to health, unlike the spores which are spreadingcoccidioidomycosis at an alarming rate in the SouthwestU.S.A., according to a report in The Week for July 26. Andthe mushroom in a BBC Asia News report dated 28 July and called to ourattention by Larry Millman may turn out to be a cause for celebration. It wasfound by villagers in China’sJianshui County and weighed more than 15kilograms and measured nearly a meter in diameter.

               Chytrid fungus shows up again in the July-August American Scientist,wherein we learn that carriers of this fungus which is wiping out previouslyunexposed populations of frogs have been found in the United States, as well as in Africa.  And Mother Jones for the same time period reports that when Cyndi Lauperstopped by the office of Rep. Jared Polis last spring, he served her some ofthe Colorado-crafted High Country Kombucha he keeps on hand. I apologize if youalready knew this.    

               Harper’s for August contains an article entitled “Gaboxadol,” which isthe name of a derivative of muscimol, which is a compound found in Amanitamuscaria. The article is an unintended (I guess) case study in wildspeculation and self-medication based on this wild speculation. The authorsurvived to write the article. On the other hand, Science for 2 Augustdoesn’t betray its name by pretending to competently discuss the playing ofharps, but provides us with insights on the war between plants and their fungalpathogens. “Plant surface receptors. . .  sense fungal chitin oligomers,which are basic components of fungal cell walls, and thereby trigger immunedefenses against the fungus. The fungi, in turn, have evolved molecularcountermeasures . . .  [such as] a fungal effector protein, Ecpj6, whichis secreted by the leaf mold Cladosporium fulvum and provides a meansfor the pathogen to hide from the host.” Also, the same motif which is acomponent of the plant surface receptors exists in dimeric form in fungi, whereit serves to hide chitin from the plant’s immune responses. 

               The New Yorker dated August 12 & 19 contains an article on thesearch for the cause of BEN (Balkan endemic nephropathy), a kidney disease andthe many blind alleys down which researchers were led before concluding that afungal toxin called ochratoxin A was the apparent cause.

                   #100 TMC October 2013    Page 04  CopyrightedMaterial

               During a bit of time travel, I have picked up a copy of American Scientistfor September-October. Therein we learn of and are shown “beautiful,gravity-defying structures can form when water freezes under the rightconditions.” One of these structures is known as hair ice, which “is related tothe presence of a fungus [in dead wood]. . . waste gases produced as the fungusdecomposed the wood formed pressure that aids in pushing water out of thewood’s thin channels and so to the surface, where organic material in the wateraids in rapid freezing.”

                                      Cooking WithMushrooms

Dijon Chicken with Mushrooms

4 boneless skinless chicken breast halves

2 tablespoons flour (with salt and pepperadded)

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

11/2 tablespoon butter

1 medium onion, chopped

11/2 cup fresh or hydrated Maitake,Oyster or Shiitake mushrooms, thickly sliced

1/2 cup heavy cream

1 tablespoon fresh parsley, chopped

1 tablespoon Dijon mustard

1 tablespoon lemon juice

Pound breasts until 1/4" thick. Coatwell with the flour mixture. Heat oil over medium heat. Add chicken and sautéabout 8 minutes, turning once. Remove and set aside, save juice. Add butter tofry pan and increase heat to high. Add onion and mushrooms. Sauté about 6-8minutes. Reduce heat to low. Add cream, parsley, mustard and lemon juice. Bringto a boil stirring constantly. Add juices from chicken into cream mixture. Poursauce over chicken and serve. A nice wild rice mix goes well as a side dish.Also Chardonnay..........as usual.

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                #100 TMC October 2013    Page 05  Copyrighted Material

             HowMushroom Spores Are Spread About The World

A Posthttp://shroomotopia.net/index.php?showtopic=21449#entry246533 by the Real Mr. G....he posts that Psilocybe cubensis spores were brought to Floridafrom Cubaby cattle swimming ashore and having the spores in their stomachs.

Facts about Mushroom Spores:

When mushroom spores are picked up by jet steams, they arespread all over the Earth's atmosphere. They cover the entire Earth.  Ifthe species of mushroom has been around for the last 100 or 1,000 years (whichis usually the case), it has had enough time to be spread everywhere around theEarth.  The fact is, Psilocybe mexicana sporescover the entire Earth, even all about the North and South Poles.  But, you do not see them there because all ofthe conditions needed for them to fruit, do not exist.  Now if a subtropical Island, which has neverhad cattle on it, suddenly has cattle brought to it, and now meets therequirements for Psilocybe mexicana having plenty of cattle dung (and all otherrequirements), there is a good chance you will see this mushroom.  The cattle or the people did not need tobring spores, they were already there. The only thing missing was the cattle. 

These same facts hold true for Psilocybe cubensis.  The spores were always there.  There just were not proper conditions forthem to fruit.  Once cattle wereintroduced, the spores could grow and produce mushrooms.  Mushroom spores do not need cattle (or theirstomachs), or people to spread them about.......they already exist in the windall over the world.  Do you really thinkthat the wind could not blow mushroom spores from Cubato Florida?  Do you really think that without people orcattle moving from Cuba to Florida, there would have never been Psilocybe cubensis sporesin Florida?  I have done articles and posts on this"urban legend" for many years and yet some are still spreading falseinformation on how mushroom spores travel. Now you know.  slp/fmrc

                            -------------------------------------------------

                Antidote For Amanita muscaria and Muscarine

I answered to this post at another mushroom forum:

"I'm told belladonna is the antidote to these mushrooms (Amanita muscaria) - someone must behaving a laugh at all those doctors who think the mushroom is even trippierthan it is."

It just so happens, Atropine is the antidote for Muscarine. It, a long timeago, worked its way onto Internet under "What to do about MushroomPoisoning". It even sets on many Veterinarian search's, and has goodresults with certain pets, more so than with humans. Thing is, unless you havedigested a mushroom that holds Muscarine, Atropine does no good whenadministered. It actually can make the patient's condition much worse. Amanitamuscaria is named because of its Muscarine content. One large mushroomcan bring about "drools", dehydration, and sit you down some placeyou do not like being. I have never seen any documented proof that someone diedspecifically from the Amanita muscaria mushroom. Somespecies of Inocybe hold high amounts of Muscarine and they can cause death. Ithink in these cases, a doctor may decide to use Atropine. So, if you there areno signs of Muscarine, do not use Atropine. Atropine will have no effect on Phalloidin,the deadly compound in Deadly Amanita like A. phalloides.
                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 06  CopyrightedMaterial
 

Nowsaying belladonna is the antidote for this mushroom Amanita muscaria, wasinteresting to me. I was wondering where this information came from. If youcould, I would like to receive it. Thing is, Atropine is extracted from"Atropa belladonna" and also Datura stramonium L.  And you are right. These products can be verypowerful and deliver a good punch to the person who takes them. That's a goodreason for not wanting to get an Atropine treatment if not needed.

Year's ago, I got an email from someone who had a book, something like"Odd Cures and Antidotes. He said when he looked up Muscarine, it said theantidote was Atropine, When he looked up Atropine, the antidote was Muscarine.
This is taken from #46 TEO Nov. 2013 Issue. Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC

Advertising in The Mushroom Culture is just good rifle shotadvertising.  Plus, when it is posted upfor download at our website, www.mushroomsfmrc.com, hundreds of thousands ofpeople see it!  Pretty good deal, whenyou think about it.  If its MushroomRelated, and you want to sell it, try this:

                             How  To Place  An  Ad In  “TMC”

For 1 full year (4 issues)…Full page $500.00, ½ page$250.00, ¼ page $125.00.

For one time (1 issue)…Full page $200.00, ½ page $100.00, ¼page $50.00, 40 word ad $20.00.

                                            -----------------------------------

Books Available Only From FMRC’s Book Store………AndNow It Is On Line For FREE Viewing

                  Mushroom BooksYou Never Knew Existed
For a complete list of FMRC’s publications, videos, and a listing of all theBack Issues of "TMC" with a summary of each ones contents, see theFMRC “MAIN” Catalog posted On Line at our website www.mushroomsfmrc.comthen click “Catalogs” off of our Main Menu. Then just scroll down and you will see all we have to offer.  Also, check out our “Store”. The down load orcopy/paste is free.          -------------------------------------------

                 Submitting Spore Samplesfor This Journal

Submitting spore samples for Journal entries, entitles you to one year’sfree subscription to the "Physical" Hard Copy issues published byFMRC.  Only select prints that you are sure of identification.  Donot submit samples you cannot identify.  "TMC" and"TEO" ("THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal Of MushroomCultivation (TMC) and "TEONANACATL", The International Journal OfPsychoactive Mushrooms TEO), both published by FMRC, remain the only"color" mushroom journals that come with mushroom spore printsamples.  This is mainly due to reader collection and the fact it is quitetroublesome to place the said samples into the Journals.  To this date, Iknow of no one else who has tried taking on this task.  Mushroom printsshould be taken on paper.  Any dark colored spores can be taken on whitepaper.  Light colored or white spores

should be taken on a dark colored paper.  This will ensurecontrast and make the spores easy to see.  Seven to nine complete sheetsshould be submitted.  Place

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 07  CopyrightedMaterial

and affix (with staple or tape) cover sheet over each sheet ofprints.  Send date and where collected.  Wild edibles make the bestsubmissions for the "TMC" Journal.  If you wish to submit acontroversial type, like Psilocybe cyanescens,

these said types may be submitted (or we will forward) to"TEONANACATL", The International Journal of Psychoactive Mushrooms(TEO).  Because these issues have thisunique feature of mushroom spore print samples to aid in the correctidentification of mushrooms collected out in the wild, they have a cutoff of3,000 subscribers.  This makes originalHard Copy back issues of "TMC" and "TEO" rare and the mostvaluable to collect.

CONGRATULATIONS TO THE FOLLOWINGPEOPLE
Because of your input to this issue of "TMC", you are awarded ayear’s free subscription.  We all thank you for your very helpful input: ColorPhotograph of Lactariusindigo andFREE spore samples by R. Arnold, and Dennis Forth for correct "MQ".Answer,

CULTURE FLASK…….. Is this your last Issueon Subscription?            

                                                                 

For Physical "TMC" HARD COPYSubscriptions That Contain Spore Samples
IF YOUR CULTURE FLASK HAS A "RED" CONTAMINANT IN IT,

THIS ISYOUR LAST ISSUE!  Send $30 to renew yoursubscription ($50 US Dollars for Out Of Country), for another year'ssubscription.  The "RED"contaminant is your only reminder, other than your mailing label saying"00" issues left after your first name.  As we value your support and interests,please send payment now while it is on your mind.  This way, "TMC" can continue andyou will never miss an issue.  After all,it is your Journal.

                              ------------------------------------------------

Mushroom Spore Print sample For #100 TMCOCT 2013                                                          "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"  
Tylopilus felleus 
EDIBILITY –  Inedible.  Free print samples provided by Robin Arnoldto help identify this mushroom.          

FMRC’s Catalog Number…………………………………………………………#SO26

How To Win A Year’s Free SubscriptionTo "TMC"
If you see any article about mushrooms, past or present, and you think othersmay like to read about it, send it in.  If it is used in "TMC",you get the free subscription.  If you find a large stand of a particularspecies of mushroom, and are able to collect 7 to 10 good full sheets of sporeprints (enough to place samples in "TMC"), send them in.  Ifthey are accepted, they will be placed in

"TMC", and you get the freesubscription.  If you send anything in that has to do with mushrooms, andit is used (Mail Call letters do not apply), you get the freesubscription.  If you do not want your name mentioned, please state so andwe will honor your wishes.  Free subscriptions are physical issues withspore print samples and 4" X 6" color photographs.   

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

                   MUSHROOM QUIZ "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of thisJournal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  Nophone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail). The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to thisJournal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in thefollowing edition (unless you state "Not to publish yourname").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with yourknowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #99 "TMC"What is a “Paddock Stool”?

Last Issue’s Answer:  An oldEnglish common name for some Bolete.  

WINNER with first correct answer:  Dennis Forth

"MQ" For This Issue #100:  What does the term “Toroid” mean?     

                                       

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                #100 TMC October 2013    Page 09  CopyrightedMaterial

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation(TMC)
       Color photograph for #100, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                     October 2013                                  

                                   Photograph Copyrightedby FMRC  

                                            Lactarius indigo

                                    Photographby Robin Arnold        

   

                                        

        

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 10  CopyrightedMaterial

                      Florida  Mycology  Research  Center (FMRC)

                         POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523 USA

This copy belongs to:  _____________________________

Please follow the indicated routing andreturn:

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                    #100 TMC October  2013

                                             

#100 “TMC” Copyright 2012    

ISSN: 1078-4314

For October 2013                            $15.00

                                    

             The Journal of MushroomCultivation (TMC)

    The Official Mushroom Journal for the “Independent

              Mushroom Grower’s Network”(IMGN)

                 THE  MUSHROOM  CULTURE

To learn more about IMGN, see www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html,or write to FMRC to get complete information on this old and unique mushroomassociation…many valuable benefits.

___ This is a "RESTRICTED" Issue. It contains all spore prints and photographs.

___  This is a"NON-RESTRICTED" Issue.  Itcontains no mushroom spore prints.

___  This is a"REPRINT"/"Photo Copy" Issue.  It may not contain prints or pictures.  Published by:          FloridaMycology ResearchCenter (FMRC)

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EDITORS:          Youthe reader

                   Over 7,000 IMGN Members 

         Marshall E. Deutsch:  Articles Takenfrom "The Bulletin Of

                                    The BostonMycological Club” and other recent references                                

                                to fungi encountered during theeditor’s quotidian activities

                  Cooking Editor: Robin Arnold

                  Chief Editor:  Stephen L.Peele, Curator FMRC

It is official from the USDA:  The 2011/2012 USA Mushroom Cash Crop was over$1 Billion!!!  There were only 279 registeredgrowers!!!  Maybe you should check out“IMGN” and start getting your share!

http://www.mushroomsfmrc.com/gpage2.html

The world’s only and longestrunning color Mushroom Journal (Since 1984) that comes with actual “LiveMushroom Spore Print Samples” affixed inside (held safe inside a small sealedplastic envelope).    

                                             CO N T E N T S

TMC Journal Subscription and other JournalInformation……………01

Mycology In The Media……………………………….………………….02

     Pendulous lichens…………………………………………………….01

     Psilocybin use and its history………………………………………..02

     Brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiaethe official microbe...02

     Irish potato crop……………………………………………………….01

     Treating frogs with a bacterium……………………………………...01

     Truffle’s black magic flavor…………………………………………..01

     Dr. Pollock’s Death……………………………………………………02

     Cooking With Mushrooms……………………………………………04

     How Mushroom Spores Are SpreadAbout The World……………05

Antidote For Amanitamuscaria and Muscarine………….…..………05

How To Place An AdIn TMC……………………………………………06

Submitting SporesTo This Journal……………………………………..06

CONGRATULATIONSto FREE Subscription Winners………………07

Culture Flask……IsThis Your Last Issue………………...……………07

FREE Mushroom SporePrint Sample SO26………………………….07

MushroomQuiz…………………………………………………………..08

Color Photograph ofLactariusindigo ……………………….……….09

                                               aa

    

 

 

Mushroom Journal Subscriptions:  If you would like to order a subscriptionto “THE MUSHROOM CULTURE”, you may send request and payment of $30.00 made outto FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola,FL. 32523, for one year. 

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The SchedulingDispatch Of This Journal:  This Journal's "Hard Copy" is mailed thru the second week ofthe Issue's Publication month/date.  This is usually the first Monday ofthe said month.  Because games and prizes offered in this Journal arerestricted to postal mail only, the Electronic Issue is not released until 2 to3 weeks after the postal mailing of the "Hard Copy".  This isdone to prevent unfair advantage if both were released at the same time.  To view the Electronic Issue, go to www.mushroomsfmrc.com then, click on “TMCJournals”.  The FREE Download is madeavailable by donations.  To help keepthis mycological free service available to all, you may send your donation inany amount to FMRC, POB 18105, Pensacola,FL 32523.  TMC is aquarterly publication, 4 times a year. Because many articles are copy/pasted from emails, spelling and grammarerrors may exist.  They are left “as is”to show proof of original document. 
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Know The Mushroom Laws In Your Area:  Some readers who receive thisJournal live in areas where no mushroom laws exist.  Others, like those inthe USA,must be aware of laws that forbid the possession and cultivation of mushroomsthat contain controlled substances.  Psilocybecubensis is an example of an illegal mushroom in the USA.  As articles are done onan International basis, always keep in mind the laws on these said typemushrooms in your own specific area.  Questions?  Check with the locallaw from a pay phone.

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Mushroom Identification over the Phone… a public service provided byFMRC to Poison Control Centersand Emergency Rooms all over the world.  Since 1972, the Florida MycologyResearch Centerhas offered this free service 24 hours a day to all Poison ControlCenters and EmergencyRooms.  Please take the time to contact your local Poison ControlCenter or local hospitaland make sure they are aware of this service.  Many times, theidentification of a mushroom involved in a mushroom poisoning can mean thecorrect treatment…the wrong treatment could be bad for the victim.  Callthem and give our "Mushroom ID" phone number…1-850-327-4378. 

                      #100 TMC October 2013    Page 01  CopyrightedMaterial

                                                   Mycology in the Media

Marshall E. Deutsch

                                                                                                                                                                             In an article entitled “Mining the Boreal North,” AmericanScientist for March-April presents information so interesting that Ishouldn’t have missed mentioning it in last quarter’s column. It describes theconflict between the native Sámi of Scandinavia and Swedish timber companieswhose removal of older spruce forest deprived reindeer of the pendulous lichenwhich provided the latter with winter food. It also tells how smoke fromsmelters “contained heavy metals such as cadmium and lead, which were capturedby lichen and then accumulated in reindeer and the people who ate them.”

               But that’s not the only reference to pendulous lichens I should have includedin my last column. Natural History for April described old-man’s-beardlichens in Nepal anddescribes the same lichen on the shoreof Lake Superior as being“an ethereal light-green lichen” which is “very sensitive to air pollution.”

               Psilocybin use and its history are discussed in NYU Alumni Magazine’sSpring issue in an article promising publication of the results of an ongoingstudy of psilocybin’s use in treating cancer-related anxiety. And AmericanLaboratory’s contribution to mycology in its May issue is the revelationthat the electron micrograph on its April cover was of air dried green breadmold, while Natural History for the month presents more evidence thatthe “historic spread of [Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, (Bd)]has been linked to global trade in frogs [particularly Xenopus laevis,which can survive a Bd infection] and the subsequent  releaseof many in the wild.”  Science for 10 May reports the same story.

               Finally some official recognition for a fungus! Chemical & EngineeringNews (C&EN) for May 13 reports that the Oregon House ofRepresentatives has unanimously passed a resolution to make brewer’s yeast, Saccharomycescerevisiae the official microbe of the state. Then again, The Weekfor May 17 manages to have a full-page discussion of “The ecosystem inside you”with many references to bacteria but none to fungi. This is more than compensatedfor by two articles on the web. LiveScence for 22 May focuses on ourfungal companions (particularly those on our feet) and Nature.com for 22May gives a glimpse of the true role played by fungi: “Eleven core-body and armsites were dominated by fungi of the genus Malassezia . . .By contrast,three foot sites—plantar heel, toenail and toe web—showed high fungaldiversity.”

               Laura Reiner calls our attention to a web article on 21 May describing howscientists have recently sequenced the genome of the strain of Phytophthorainfestans which ravaged the Irish potato crop between 1845 and 1852. Thiswas accomplished using dried potato leaves which had been preserved in aherbarium since 1847.

               Using probiotics to prevent disease seems more advanced for frogs than forpeople. American Scientist for May-June reports that treating frogs witha bacterium called Janthinobacterium lividum reliably protected themfrom chytridiomycosis. The bacterium produces violacein, which inhibits chytridfungal growth.    

               The June Smithsonian loaded with fungal references. Therein, we learnthat India has ceased usinggrenades containing a very hot pepper known as Bhut Jolokia against protestersin Kashmir because the powdered chili is proneto fungal rot. Elsewhere in the issue, Mimi Sheraton muses on the enhancementof wild mushrooms with butter or horseradish cream and avers that  “Theonly way to really grasp and remember the [black Perigord] truffle’s blackmagic flavor and exquisitely overripe, vaguely evil aroma is at least once tobite into one without any enhancement other than the kiss of butter or baconand brandy that were brushed on before the truffle was wrapped in parchment andplaced in a metal pan to be roasted under white ashes”. She emphasizes thatthis must be done with Tuber melanosporum rather than white Albatruffles.

               Later in the same issue we encounter “Yeasts of the Southern Wild” andbuttermilk drops, which are doubly dependent on fungi, while a book reviewnotes that the untimely death of Lord Carnarvon following his disturbance ofKing Tutankhamen’s tomb was more likely to have

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 02  Copyrighted Material

been caused by a fungus found in batguano than by evil spirits. The untimely death of impatiens plants can also beblamed on a fungus according to The Boston Globe for June 12, whichnotes a warning by state officials that “Impatiens downy mildew…infects theflowers and causes them to die, but does not affect other types of plants orflowers... . . The first sign of infection are leaves that appear slightlyyellow or off-color, with small, white powder-like spores on the underside ofthe leaves.”

               The Week for June 14 doesn’t mention fungi in a piece about why frogsand other amphibians are disappearing, but does discuss our fungal inhabitantsin part as follows: “Researchers recently set out to map our fungi, anddiscovered that our feet harbor more than 100 types of fungi, 80 of which liveon our heels alone. Our head and trunk, by contrast are dominated by a singlegenus of fungus called Malassezia, which can cause dandruff. On average,two to 32 types of fungi reside on other areas of the body, including thehands, elbows, thighs and groin. Most of that fungi [sic] is harmless and mayeven protect us from invading microbes that cause diseases or fungal infectionslike athlete’s foot.”

               If you were interested in getting rid of these friendly fungi, you might haveto do for yourself what the Ecuadorean government is doing for frogs. Accordingto NewScientist (NS) dated 15 June, they are collectingamphibians and keeping them in temperature-controlled fungus-free “life rafts.”The same issue describes the use of fungi for packaging material as wasdescribed in The New Yorker for May 20 and criticized in a separatearticle in this Bulletin. The criticisms don’t apply to using fungi topackage people (i.e., build domiciles) as carried out by Richard Schiffman,described in Slate for June 23 and called to our attention by LauraReiner.

               And, if you’re interested in fighting your fungal symbionts, you may beinterested in C&EN for June 10 wherein is described a way ofmodifying amphotericin B to make it less toxic to you. Slime molds, however,are so intelligent, that it might be wiser not to fight them, but to takeadvantage of their intelligence, as described in NS dated June 22,wherein we learn that Physarum polvcephalum, in addition to finding theshortest paths between nutrients, can function as a memristor, a variableresistor whose resistance can be set by the application of a suitable voltageand which “remembers” the setting when the voltage is turned off.

               Marcia Jacob calls our attention to an article in the Wall Street Journalfor June 27 which describes a popular videogame in Japan that features growingmushrooms, and includes a dancing mushroom. The featured mushrooms are not theones familiar to BMC members,  but are more than 200 characters which arevariants of the nameko, a slimy but very popularmushroom.       

               Science for 28 June publishes a correction to a previous depiction of apartial modern tree of life. A fungus (yeast) retains its place as a primaryancestor of multicellular creatures. And NS for 29 June describesdo-it-yourself science projects of some readers. These include “collectingwild mushrooms and catching the spores on agar plates to try to grow spawn fromthem.”

               I find it hard to picture caribou subsisting on lichen, even lichen danglingfrom tree branches, but National Wildlife for June/July provides theeven harder-to-picture description of musk oxen digging through snow “to get totheir food source—lichens growing on rocks beneath the snowcover.”                                                                    

               A note in the July CAP Today suggests (to me, anyway) that carrying a UVlamp might help in identifying fungi. It certainly does help in identifyingfungal infections of fingernails and toenails, which, when irradiated withultraviolet light can be identified “by their tubular or annular shapes withfluorescence surrounding them.”

Harper’s magazine for Julyhas it all in an article on the mysterious death of “Steven Pollock, aphysician and pioneering mycologist,” who was an acquaintance of Gary Lincoff.The article also contains a reference to a mysterious tape recording referredto by Paul Stamets and the author’s analysis of possible clues on this tape tothe circumstances of Pollock’s death. Paul Stamets pops up again in Discovermagazine for July, which was called to our attention by Joel

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Kershner.  An articletherein contains an interesting and detailed explanation of Paul’s many ideason mycorestoration and tells of how he “trained [i.e., selectively bred} Metarhiziumanisopliae, which kills termites and carpenter ants when its spores aresprayed on them directly,” so that it lagged in spore production and could begrown on rice, which would attract ants that carry it back to their nest. Heused the infected rice to rid his house of the ants.

               Reading the book The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, I kept wishing fora photograph of the wife so I could judge for myself whether I might make thesame mistake. The Discover article doesn’t suffer from this error andshows Stamets wearing a hat in a sidebar entitled “The Man Who Mistook HisMushroom for a Hat.” It tells how the spongy layer of Fomes fomentariuscan be processed into a warm, feltlike fabric, as well as being useful as afire starter under the name “amadou.” And a third reference to hats (a hattrick?) occurs in NS for 6 July, wherein a reader states that herhusband has a hat made of bracket fungus, which he bought in Hungary.

               Jean Palmer sends us a Smithsonian web item from July 17 which recountsthe debates over fossil organisms known as Prototaxites and illustrates theauthor’s slant with its title: “Long Before Trees Overtook the Land, Earth wasCovered by Giant Mushrooms,” but presents other possibilities which explainthese fossils. Which brings us to The  Week for July 19, wherein itis explained to us that “artichoke oysters” on a menu were made “by frying upoyster mushrooms and presenting them on artichoke leaves topped with ‘caviar’made from kelp,” and that a “magical buffet” in Nanjing featured fungus soupand salted duck. 

               As for aspiration, rather than oral ingestion, of molds, NS for 20 Julyinforms us that the Jubillee line, the youngest of the London Underground linesis “mouldier than the much older Central and  Bakerloo lines.” But thisdoes not seem to be a threat to health, unlike the spores which are spreadingcoccidioidomycosis at an alarming rate in the SouthwestU.S.A., according to a report in The Week for July 26. Andthe mushroom in a BBC Asia News report dated 28 July and called to ourattention by Larry Millman may turn out to be a cause for celebration. It wasfound by villagers in China’sJianshui County and weighed more than 15kilograms and measured nearly a meter in diameter.

               Chytrid fungus shows up again in the July-August American Scientist,wherein we learn that carriers of this fungus which is wiping out previouslyunexposed populations of frogs have been found in the United States, as well as in Africa.  And Mother Jones for the same time period reports that when Cyndi Lauperstopped by the office of Rep. Jared Polis last spring, he served her some ofthe Colorado-crafted High Country Kombucha he keeps on hand. I apologize if youalready knew this.    

               Harper’s for August contains an article entitled “Gaboxadol,” which isthe name of a derivative of muscimol, which is a compound found in Amanitamuscaria. The article is an unintended (I guess) case study in wildspeculation and self-medication based on this wild speculation. The authorsurvived to write the article. On the other hand, Science for 2 Augustdoesn’t betray its name by pretending to competently discuss the playing ofharps, but provides us with insights on the war between plants and their fungalpathogens. “Plant surface receptors. . .  sense fungal chitin oligomers,which are basic components of fungal cell walls, and thereby trigger immunedefenses against the fungus. The fungi, in turn, have evolved molecularcountermeasures . . .  [such as] a fungal effector protein, Ecpj6, whichis secreted by the leaf mold Cladosporium fulvum and provides a meansfor the pathogen to hide from the host.” Also, the same motif which is acomponent of the plant surface receptors exists in dimeric form in fungi, whereit serves to hide chitin from the plant’s immune responses. 

               The New Yorker dated August 12 & 19 contains an article on thesearch for the cause of BEN (Balkan endemic nephropathy), a kidney disease andthe many blind alleys down which researchers were led before concluding that afungal toxin called ochratoxin A was the apparent cause.

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               During a bit of time travel, I have picked up a copy of American Scientistfor September-October. Therein we learn of and are shown “beautiful,gravity-defying structures can form when water freezes under the rightconditions.” One of these structures is known as hair ice, which “is related tothe presence of a fungus [in dead wood]. . . waste gases produced as the fungusdecomposed the wood formed pressure that aids in pushing water out of thewood’s thin channels and so to the surface, where organic material in the wateraids in rapid freezing.”

                                      Cooking WithMushrooms

Dijon Chicken with Mushrooms

4 boneless skinless chicken breast halves

2 tablespoons flour (with salt and pepperadded)

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

11/2 tablespoon butter

1 medium onion, chopped

11/2 cup fresh or hydrated Maitake,Oyster or Shiitake mushrooms, thickly sliced

1/2 cup heavy cream

1 tablespoon fresh parsley, chopped

1 tablespoon Dijon mustard

1 tablespoon lemon juice

Pound breasts until 1/4" thick. Coatwell with the flour mixture. Heat oil over medium heat. Add chicken and sautéabout 8 minutes, turning once. Remove and set aside, save juice. Add butter tofry pan and increase heat to high. Add onion and mushrooms. Sauté about 6-8minutes. Reduce heat to low. Add cream, parsley, mustard and lemon juice. Bringto a boil stirring constantly. Add juices from chicken into cream mixture. Poursauce over chicken and serve. A nice wild rice mix goes well as a side dish.Also Chardonnay..........as usual.

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             HowMushroom Spores Are Spread About The World

A Posthttp://shroomotopia.net/index.php?showtopic=21449#entry246533 by the Real Mr. G....he posts that Psilocybe cubensis spores were brought to Floridafrom Cubaby cattle swimming ashore and having the spores in their stomachs.

Facts about Mushroom Spores:

When mushroom spores are picked up by jet steams, they arespread all over the Earth's atmosphere. They cover the entire Earth.  Ifthe species of mushroom has been around for the last 100 or 1,000 years (whichis usually the case), it has had enough time to be spread everywhere around theEarth.  The fact is, Psilocybe mexicana sporescover the entire Earth, even all about the North and South Poles.  But, you do not see them there because all ofthe conditions needed for them to fruit, do not exist.  Now if a subtropical Island, which has neverhad cattle on it, suddenly has cattle brought to it, and now meets therequirements for Psilocybe mexicana having plenty of cattle dung (and all otherrequirements), there is a good chance you will see this mushroom.  The cattle or the people did not need tobring spores, they were already there. The only thing missing was the cattle. 

These same facts hold true for Psilocybe cubensis.  The spores were always there.  There just were not proper conditions forthem to fruit.  Once cattle wereintroduced, the spores could grow and produce mushrooms.  Mushroom spores do not need cattle (or theirstomachs), or people to spread them about.......they already exist in the windall over the world.  Do you really thinkthat the wind could not blow mushroom spores from Cubato Florida?  Do you really think that without people orcattle moving from Cuba to Florida, there would have never been Psilocybe cubensis sporesin Florida?  I have done articles and posts on this"urban legend" for many years and yet some are still spreading falseinformation on how mushroom spores travel. Now you know.  slp/fmrc

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                Antidote For Amanita muscaria and Muscarine

I answered to this post at another mushroom forum:

"I'm told belladonna is the antidote to these mushrooms (Amanita muscaria) - someone must behaving a laugh at all those doctors who think the mushroom is even trippierthan it is."

It just so happens, Atropine is the antidote for Muscarine. It, a long timeago, worked its way onto Internet under "What to do about MushroomPoisoning". It even sets on many Veterinarian search's, and has goodresults with certain pets, more so than with humans. Thing is, unless you havedigested a mushroom that holds Muscarine, Atropine does no good whenadministered. It actually can make the patient's condition much worse. Amanitamuscaria is named because of its Muscarine content. One large mushroomcan bring about "drools", dehydration, and sit you down some placeyou do not like being. I have never seen any documented proof that someone diedspecifically from the Amanita muscaria mushroom. Somespecies of Inocybe hold high amounts of Muscarine and they can cause death. Ithink in these cases, a doctor may decide to use Atropine. So, if you there areno signs of Muscarine, do not use Atropine. Atropine will have no effect on Phalloidin,the deadly compound in Deadly Amanita like A. phalloides.
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Nowsaying belladonna is the antidote for this mushroom Amanita muscaria, wasinteresting to me. I was wondering where this information came from. If youcould, I would like to receive it. Thing is, Atropine is extracted from"Atropa belladonna" and also Datura stramonium L.  And you are right. These products can be verypowerful and deliver a good punch to the person who takes them. That's a goodreason for not wanting to get an Atropine treatment if not needed.

Year's ago, I got an email from someone who had a book, something like"Odd Cures and Antidotes. He said when he looked up Muscarine, it said theantidote was Atropine, When he looked up Atropine, the antidote was Muscarine.
This is taken from #46 TEO Nov. 2013 Issue. Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC

Advertising in The Mushroom Culture is just good rifle shotadvertising.  Plus, when it is posted upfor download at our website, www.mushroomsfmrc.com, hundreds of thousands ofpeople see it!  Pretty good deal, whenyou think about it.  If its MushroomRelated, and you want to sell it, try this:

                             How  To Place  An  Ad In  “TMC”

For 1 full year (4 issues)…Full page $500.00, ½ page$250.00, ¼ page $125.00.

For one time (1 issue)…Full page $200.00, ½ page $100.00, ¼page $50.00, 40 word ad $20.00.

                                            -----------------------------------

Books Available Only From FMRC’s Book Store………AndNow It Is On Line For FREE Viewing

                  Mushroom BooksYou Never Knew Existed
For a complete list of FMRC’s publications, videos, and a listing of all theBack Issues of "TMC" with a summary of each ones contents, see theFMRC “MAIN” Catalog posted On Line at our website www.mushroomsfmrc.comthen click “Catalogs” off of our Main Menu. Then just scroll down and you will see all we have to offer.  Also, check out our “Store”. The down load orcopy/paste is free.          -------------------------------------------

                 Submitting Spore Samplesfor This Journal

Submitting spore samples for Journal entries, entitles you to one year’sfree subscription to the "Physical" Hard Copy issues published byFMRC.  Only select prints that you are sure of identification.  Donot submit samples you cannot identify.  "TMC" and"TEO" ("THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal Of MushroomCultivation (TMC) and "TEONANACATL", The International Journal OfPsychoactive Mushrooms TEO), both published by FMRC, remain the only"color" mushroom journals that come with mushroom spore printsamples.  This is mainly due to reader collection and the fact it is quitetroublesome to place the said samples into the Journals.  To this date, Iknow of no one else who has tried taking on this task.  Mushroom printsshould be taken on paper.  Any dark colored spores can be taken on whitepaper.  Light colored or white spores

should be taken on a dark colored paper.  This will ensurecontrast and make the spores easy to see.  Seven to nine complete sheetsshould be submitted.  Place

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 07  CopyrightedMaterial

and affix (with staple or tape) cover sheet over each sheet ofprints.  Send date and where collected.  Wild edibles make the bestsubmissions for the "TMC" Journal.  If you wish to submit acontroversial type, like Psilocybe cyanescens,

these said types may be submitted (or we will forward) to"TEONANACATL", The International Journal of Psychoactive Mushrooms(TEO).  Because these issues have thisunique feature of mushroom spore print samples to aid in the correctidentification of mushrooms collected out in the wild, they have a cutoff of3,000 subscribers.  This makes originalHard Copy back issues of "TMC" and "TEO" rare and the mostvaluable to collect.

CONGRATULATIONS TO THE FOLLOWINGPEOPLE
Because of your input to this issue of "TMC", you are awarded ayear’s free subscription.  We all thank you for your very helpful input: ColorPhotograph of Lactariusindigo andFREE spore samples by R. Arnold, and Dennis Forth for correct "MQ".Answer,

CULTURE FLASK…….. Is this your last Issueon Subscription?            

                                                                 

For Physical "TMC" HARD COPYSubscriptions That Contain Spore Samples
IF YOUR CULTURE FLASK HAS A "RED" CONTAMINANT IN IT,

THIS ISYOUR LAST ISSUE!  Send $30 to renew yoursubscription ($50 US Dollars for Out Of Country), for another year'ssubscription.  The "RED"contaminant is your only reminder, other than your mailing label saying"00" issues left after your first name.  As we value your support and interests,please send payment now while it is on your mind.  This way, "TMC" can continue andyou will never miss an issue.  After all,it is your Journal.

                              ------------------------------------------------

Mushroom Spore Print sample For #100 TMCOCT 2013                                                          "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"  
Tylopilus felleus 
EDIBILITY –  Inedible.  Free print samples provided by Robin Arnoldto help identify this mushroom.          

FMRC’s Catalog Number…………………………………………………………#SO26

How To Win A Year’s Free SubscriptionTo "TMC"
If you see any article about mushrooms, past or present, and you think othersmay like to read about it, send it in.  If it is used in "TMC",you get the free subscription.  If you find a large stand of a particularspecies of mushroom, and are able to collect 7 to 10 good full sheets of sporeprints (enough to place samples in "TMC"), send them in.  Ifthey are accepted, they will be placed in

"TMC", and you get the freesubscription.  If you send anything in that has to do with mushrooms, andit is used (Mail Call letters do not apply), you get the freesubscription.  If you do not want your name mentioned, please state so andwe will honor your wishes.  Free subscriptions are physical issues withspore print samples and 4" X 6" color photographs.   

              #100 TMC October 2013    Page 08  Copyrighted Material

                   MUSHROOM QUIZ "MQ"
Mushroom Quiz ("MQ") is featured in each edition of thisJournal.  If you know the answer, write it down and mail it in.  Nophone calls.  No E-mail.  No FAX.  Your entry must be mailed by1st Class U.S. Mail only (Overseas and Out Of Country can use Airmail). The first letter that is opened and has the correct answer WINS. 
What do you win?  An entire year’s subscription to thisJournal…..FREE!  Your name will be posted with the correct answer in thefollowing edition (unless you state "Not to publish yourname").  So, come on and impress your mushroom friends with yourknowledge.  Send your entry to FMRC, "MQ", POB 18105, Pensacola, FL32523.

Last Issue’s "MQ" for #99 "TMC"What is a “Paddock Stool”?

Last Issue’s Answer:  An oldEnglish common name for some Bolete.  

WINNER with first correct answer:  Dennis Forth

"MQ" For This Issue #100:  What does the term “Toroid” mean?     

                                       

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                #100 TMC October 2013    Page 09  CopyrightedMaterial

                               The Journal Of Mushroom Cultivation(TMC)
       Color photograph for #100, "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE"
                                                     October 2013                                  

                                   Photograph Copyrightedby FMRC  

                                            Lactarius indigo

                                    Photographby Robin Arnold        

   

                                        

        

                  #100 TMC October 2013    Page 10  CopyrightedMaterial

                      Florida  Mycology  Research  Center (FMRC)

                         POB 18105, Pensacola, FL 32523 USA

This copy belongs to:  _____________________________

Please follow the indicated routing andreturn:

  Mycology Department

  Botany Department

  Biology Department

  Science & Mathematics Department

  Research & Development

  Purchasing

  Library

 Other_________________________________________

  To the deskof:__________________________________

                    #100 TMC October  2013