About 6 months ago, the writer was watching a news program on oil
and one of the Forbes Bros. was the guest.. The host said to Forbes, "I am
going to ask you a direct question and I would like a direct answer; how
much oil does the
have in the ground?" Forbes did not miss a beat, he said,
"more than all the
put together." Please read below.
The U. S. Geological Service issued a report in April 2008
that only scientists and oil men knew was coming, but man was it big. It
was a revised report (hadn't been updated since 1995) on how much oil was in
this area of the western 2/3 of North Dakota, western South Dakota,
and extreme eastern Montana ..... check THIS out:
The Bakken is the largest domestic oil discovery since
, and has the potential to eliminate all American dependence on foreign oil.
The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates it at 503 billion
barrels. Even if just 10% of the oil is recoverable... at $107 a barrel, we're
looking at a resource base worth more than $5..3 trillion..
"When I first briefed legislators on this, you could practically see their
jaws hit the floor. They had no idea.." says Terry Johnson, the Montana
Legislature's financial analyst.
"This sizable find is now the highest-producing onshore oil
field found in the past 56 years," reports The Pittsburgh Post
Gazette . It's a formation known as the Williston Basin
, but is more commonly referred to as the 'Bakken.' It stretches
from Northern Montana, through
. For years, U. S. oil exploration has been considered a dead
end. Even the 'Big Oil' companies gave up searching for major oil wells
decades ago. However, a recent technological breakthrough has opened up the
Bakken's massive reserves..... and we now have access of up to 500 billion
barrels. And because this is light, sweet oil, those billions of barrels
will cost Americans just $16 PER BARREL!
That's enough crude to fully fuel the American economy for 2041
years straight. And if THAT didn't throw you on the floor, then this next
one should - because it's from 2006!
U. S. Oil Discovery- Largest Reserve in the World
Stansberry Report Online - 4/20/2006 Hidden
1,000 feet beneath the surface of the
Mountains lies the largest untapped oil reserve in the
world. It is more than 2 TRILLION barrels. On August 8, 2005 President
Bush mandated its extraction. In three and a half years of high oil prices none
has been extracted. With this motherload of oil why are we still fighting over
They reported this stunning news: We have more oil inside
our borders, than all the other proven reserves on earth.. Here are the
- 8-times as much oil as
- 18-times as much oil as
-21-times as much oil as
- 22-times as much oil as
- 500-times as much oil as
- and it's all right here in the
United States .
HOW can this BE? HOW can we NOT BE extracting this? Because the
environmentalists and others have blocked all efforts to help
become independent of foreign oil! Again, we are letting a small group of
people dictate our lives and our economy.....WHY?
James Bartis, lead researcher with the study says we've got more
oil in this very compact area than the entire Middle East -more than 2 TRILLION
barrels untapped. That's more than all the proven oil reserves of crude
oil in the world today, reports The Denver Post.
Don't think 'OPEC' will drop its price - even with this find?
Think again! It's all about the competitive marketplace, - it has
to. Think OPEC just might be funding the environmentalists?
Got your attention yet? Now, while you're thinking
about it, do this:
Pass this along. If you don't take a little time to do
this, then you should stifle yourself the next time you complain about gas
prices - by doing NOTHING, you forfeit your right to complain
Now I just wonder what would happen in this country if every one
of you sent this to every one in your address book.
By the way...this is all true. Check it out at the link below!!!
GOOGLE it, or follow this link. It will blow your mind.
Drugs and Their Costs
Posted 2/22/08 You will be amazed!
Subject: Fwd: Fw: COSTCO READ THE WHOLE ARTICLE ESPECIALLY THE END
Date: Fri, 1 Dec 2006 13:50:51 EST
Subject: COSTCO READ THE WHOLE ARTICLE ESPECIALLY THE END
I had been wondering how there could be so many drug stores on every corner? And, now I know how WalMart can sell drugs so cheap? I thought I had lost this, but found it. I surely wanted everyone to know about this. www.mushroomsfmrc.com
COSTCO! read this...
Let's hear it for Costco!! (This is just mind-boggling!)
Make sure you read all the way past the list of the drugs. The
woman that signed below is a Budget Analyst out of federal
Did you ever wonder how much it costs a drug company for the active
ingredient in prescription medications? Some people think it must
cost a lot, since many drugs sell for more than $2.00 per tablet. We did a
search of offshore chemical synthesizers that supply the active
ingredients found in drugs approved by the FDA. As we have revealed in past issues of Life Extension, a significant percentage of drugs sold in the
United States contain active ingredients made in other countries. In our
independent investigation of how much profit drug companies really make, we obtained the actual price of active ingredients used in some of the most popular drugs sold in
The data below speaks for itself.
Celebrex: 100 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $130.27
Cost of general active ingredients: $ 0.60
Percent markup: 21,712%
Claritin: 1 0 mg
Consumer Price (100 tablets): $215.17
Cost of general active ingredients: $0.71
Percent markup: 30,306%
Keflex: 250 mg
Consumer Price (100 tablets): $157.39
Cost of general active ingredients: $1.88
Percent markup: 8,372%
Lipitor: 20 mg
Consumer Price (100 tablets): $272.37
Cost of general active ingredients: $5.80
Percent markup: 4,696%
Consumer Price (100 tablets) $232.13
10 mg Cost of general active ingredients: $0.14
Percent markup: 134,493%
Paxil: 20 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $220.27
Cost of general active ingredients: $7.60
Percent markup: 2,898%
Prevacid: 30 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $44.77
Cost of general active ingredients: $1.01
Percent markup: 34,136%
Prilosec: 20 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $360.97
Cost of general active ingredients $0.52
Percent markup: 69,417%
Prozac: 20 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets) : $247.47
Cost of general active ingredients: $0.11
Percent markup: 224,973%
Tenormin: 50 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $104.47
Cost of general active ingredients: $0.13
Percent markup: 80,362%
Vasotec: 10 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $102.37
Cost of general active ingredients: $0.20
Percent markup: 51,185%
Xanax: 1 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets) : $136.79
Cost of general active ingredients: $0.024
Percent markup: 569,958%
Zestril: 20 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets) $89.89
Cost of general active ingredients $3.20
Percent markup: 2,809
Zithromax: 600 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $1,482.19
Cost of general active ingredients: $18.78
Percent markup: 7,892%
Zocor: /B 40 mg
Consumer price (100 tablets): $350.27
Cost of general active ingredients: $8.63
Percent markup: 4,059%
Zoloft: 50 mg
Consumer price: $206.87
Cost of general active ingredients: $1.75
Percent markup: 11,821%
Since the cost of prescription drugs is so outrageous, I thought
everyone should know about this.
Please read the following and pass it on. It pays to shop around.
This helps to solve the mystery as to why they can afford to put a
Walgreen's on every corner.
On Monday night, Steve Wilson, an investigative reporter for
Channel 7 News in
Detroit, did a story on generic drug price gouging by pharmacies.
He found in his investigation, that some of these generic drugs
were marked up as much as 3,000% or more.
Yes, that's not a typo.....three thousand percent!
So often, we blame the drug companies for the high cost of drugs,
and usually rightfully so.
But in this case, the fault clearly lies with the pharmacies
For example, if you had to buy a prescription drug, and bought the
name brand, you might pay $100 for 100 pills.
The pharmacist might tell you that if you get the generic
equivalent, they would only cost $80, making you think you are "saving" $20. What the pharmacist is not telling you is that those 100 generic pills may have only cost him $10!
At the end of the report, one of the anchors asked Mr. Wilson
whether or not there were any pharmacies that did not adhere to this practice, and he said that Costco consistently charged little over their cost for the generic drugs.
I went to the Costco site, where you can look up any drug, and get
its online price.
It says that the in-store prices are consistent with the online
I was appalled. Just to give you one example from my own
I had to use the drug, Compazine, which helps prevent nausea in
I used the generic equivalent, which cost $54.99 for 60 pills at
I checked the price at Costco, and I could have bought 100 pills
For 145 of my pain pills, I paid $72.57. I could have got 150 at
I would like to mention, that although Costco is a "membership"
type store, you do NOT have to be a member to buy prescriptions there, as it is a federally regulated substance.
You just tell them at the door that you wish to use the pharmacy,
and they will let you in. (this is true)
I went there this past Thursday and asked them.
I am asking each of you to please help me by copying this letter,
and passing it into your own e-mail, and send it to everyone you know
with an e-mail address.
Sharon L. Davis
U.S Department of Commerce
Office Ph: 202-482-4458
Office Fax: 202-482-5480
E-mail Address: <mailto:email@example.com> firstname.lastname@example.org
January 29, 2008
Synthetic DNA on the Brink of Yielding New Life Forms
It has been 50 years since scientists first created DNA in a test tube, stitching ordinary chemical ingredients together to make life's most extraordinary molecule. Until recently, however, even the most sophisticated laboratories could make only small snippets of DNA -- an extra gene or two to be inserted into corn plants, for example, to help the plants ward off insects or tolerate drought.
Now researchers are poised to cross a dramatic barrier: the creation of life forms driven by completely artificial DNA.
Maryland have already built the world's first entirely handcrafted chromosome -- a large looping strand of DNA made from scratch in a laboratory, containing all the instructions a microbe needs to live and reproduce.
In the coming year, they hope to transplant it into a cell, where it is expected to "boot itself up," like software downloaded from the Internet, and cajole the waiting cell to do its bidding. And while the first synthetic chromosome is a plagiarized version of a natural one, others that code for life forms that have never existed before are already under construction.
The cobbling together of life from synthetic DNA, scientists and philosophers agree, will be a watershed event, blurring the line between biological and artificial -- and forcing a rethinking of what it means for a thing to be alive.
"This raises a range of big questions about what nature is and what it could be," said Paul Rabinow, an anthropologist at the
Berkeley who studies science's effects on society. "Evolutionary processes are no longer seen as sacred or inviolable. People in labs are figuring them out so they can improve upon them for different purposes."
That unprecedented degree of control over creation raises more than philosophical questions, however. What kinds of organisms will scientists, terrorists and other creative individuals make? How will these self-replicating entities be contained? And who might end up owning the patent rights to the basic tools for synthesizing life?
Some experts are worried that a few maverick companies are already gaining monopoly control over the core "operating system" for artificial life and are poised to become the Microsofts of synthetic biology. That could stifle competition, they say, and place enormous power in a few people's hands.
"We're heading into an era where people will be writing DNA programs like the early days of computer programming, but who will own these programs?" asked Drew Endy, a scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
At the core of synthetic biology's new ascendance are high-speed DNA synthesizers that can produce very long strands of genetic material from basic chemical building blocks: sugars, nitrogen-based compounds and phosphates.
Today a scientist can write a long genetic program on a computer just as a maestro might compose a musical score, then use a synthesizer to convert that digital code into actual DNA. Experiments with "natural" DNA indicate that when a faux chromosome gets plopped into a cell, it will be able to direct the destruction of the cell's old DNA and become its new "brain" -- telling the cell to start making a valuable chemical, for example, or a medicine or a toxin, or a bio-based gasoline substitute.
Unlike conventional biotechnology, in which scientists induce modest genetic changes in cells to make them serve industrial purposes, synthetic biology involves the large-scale rewriting of genetic codes to create metabolic machines with singular purposes.
January 11, 2008
Albert Hofmann Turns 102!
For those who might have missed this.........Albert Hofmann, the man who discovered LSD in Ergot, was 102 years old today. He also was the one who isolated Psilocybin and Psilocin in Mushrooms. I was thinking he was going to be 101, but after checking, he is 102. Says a lot for a good ol' fungi eater. grin. Have the best Birthday yet Al. slp/fmrc
Posted May 7, 2006........a letter received from Dr. Karl D. Buchanan
Dear Friends & Church Members,
We are writing to inform you that the
U.S. Supreme Court has ruled in favor of the Church regarding the sacred and traditional use of Kaneh Bosm (cannabis, marijuana), therefor, there can be no further cause for contention in the Church or among it's members regarding kaneh, and each person may choose freely for themselves.
While some secular information is available about this at www.temple420.org , you should be advised that your rights are intact and there is no need for you to purchase anything from or join "Temple420" the "Daime' church or any other organization outside of your own congregation.
Those wishing to have copies of the original Restoration of Religious Rights Act may obtain them freely on the web and all are advised that the Government must be able to show "compelling reason" to deny these rights, which it thus far has not been able to do.
Everyone should also be advised that though these rights are in place, they may not be regarded by an individual official or locality, and may have to be defended in court to be upheld should any person of any office choose to harass you or the congregation.
The American Congregation of Essenic Scholars, Wilderness Nazarene Church, Rose Chapel College and the Sons of the Eternal Mercies have always maintained this custom and tradition, being well documented in both secular and sacred history. The Church has spoken on behalf of decriminalization and testified in court regarding the sacred and traditional status of kaneh bosm (marijuana).
Church based "Medical Marijuana" prescriptions are now void and considered unnecessary in light of the Court's decision. The Church upholds these rights and may be consulted in any situation regarding the use of Kaneh for general well being, both spiritual and physical.
Praise be to God who has given us these things richly to enjoy!
May God bless you abundantly, your families and homes.
Troy G. Luevano
Dr. Karl D. Buchanan
Senior Health Officer
Posted March 21, 2006
"THE GOSPEL OF MUSHROOMS" a TWO CD-ROM Disk that contains all the Back Issues of "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC) from the #01 Issue back in 1984, to the #69 Issue 2006.....will now be included as one of the many FREE benefits that come with joining the "Independent Mushroom Grower's Network" (IMGN). What are these FREE items and benefits? Large Membership Certificate and Personal ID Card, our Confidential List of Compounds Produced By Mushrooms And Other Fungi, your free choice of $200.00 worth of spore print samples from FMRC's Spore Bank, "The Mushroom Researcher" ($50.00 value), free technical advice, "How and Where To Sell Your Mushroom Products", a free year's subscription to "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation ($30.00 value), the Film "FRUIT OF THE GODS" on DVD or VCR ($86.00 value), all FIVE FMRC Catalogs ($10.00 each value), and "The Gospel of Mushrooms" ($60.00 value). Don't know if you are keeping track, but this is really a good deal! IMGN is your best way to learn about mushrooms, and through your free year's subscription to TMC, you open up your communication link to the world of what is going on with Mushrooms. After your free year's subscription, you must subscribe to continue receiving the Journal. Read on to find out more about The Gospel Of Mushrooms.
And take the time to find out more about IMGN. Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC
"THE GOSPEL OF MUSHROOMS"
Posted March 12, 2006
"THE GOSPEL OF MUSHROOMS"
Since publishing the CD-ROM Issues #01 through #13 of "TEONANACATL", The International Journal of Psychoactive Mushrooms (TEO), I have been asked by many "Are you going to publish a CD-ROM for all the past Issues of "THE MUSHROOM CULTURE", The Journal of Mushroom Cultivation (TMC)?" This project is now being implemented. The entire compilation of all the past Issues of "TMC", that's going to be 69 Issues, are the contents of this new and fabulous publication, " THE GOSPEL OF MUSHROOMS ." That's going to be over 20 years of Mushroom Documentations. That's going to be over 20 years of research into the cultivation of many different species of mushrooms! You will see all the mycological achievements made over the last 2 decades.....all in COLOR! All the stories, all the events, its all here.
And, all you have to do is just place the Disk into your computer, and you will be there to see it all!
Want to inspect just what is going to be on this CD?
All you have to do is go to www.mushroomsfmrc.com
then click "Catalogs". As you scroll on down, you will come to the "BOOK STORE" Catalog....OnLine edition. Here you will find all the Back Issues of TMC with a brief description of their contents.
This special CD-ROM also includes a free "Gallery" of pictures like no other Photographs you have ever seen. This Special CD is in TWO CD Disks. Its way too much information for just one CD.
If you would like to have your own special copy of "The Gospel Of Mushrooms", the CD is $60.00 ($65.00 "Out of Country" and Overseas Airmail). All Highest Regards, Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC
I have also included some other Mushroom Information I hope you find informative...........
The International Journal of Psychoactive
Florida Mycology Research Center
POB 18105 Pensacola, FL 32523
Now on CD-ROM........all 13 Issues of "TEONANACATL"!!!
Own All The "TEONANACATL" Journals
From The FIRST #01 Issue to The #13 Issue
On CD-ROM………All In Color
Sorry, No Spore Print Samples
No, we haven't found out how to place spore print samples in our Electronic Issues, and we have not found out how to put them on ROM……grin. But kidding aside, owning this CD will make you most proud. All 13 Issues will be right at your finger tips for reference and documentation. Just send $10.00 (Overseas and "Out Of Country" $15.00), made out to FMRC, POB 18105,
32523. If you want to order on-line, just email FloridaMycology@cs.com and state you want to order the 1-13 TEO Issue CD-ROM. Please give shipping and, if different, billing address. We will bill you later. This special CD will also include our famous Pictorial "Mushroom Terms"! That's over three years
of Mushroom Journals. That's a lot of mushroom reference for only …….$10.00. This price is good until December 31, 2005, then
it will be the regular price $40.00. (Overseas and "Out Of Country" $45.00).
Postage Paid..........$10.00 is all you send until 2006.
For complete list of contents and articles in each 13 Issues, just go to our web site www.mushroomsfmrc.com and click "Catalogs". As you scroll down, you will find the "BOOK STORE" Catalog.....on line for free inspection or copy/paste to your computer. Look for TEO Back Issues. Here you will find the summary of contents in each Issue. This list of contents is also on the CD so that you can easily navigate through all the Journals and locate the pictures, articles, and other items of your search. Want to inspect the most current Issue of "TEO" that is posted at our website? Just go to www.mushroomsfmrc.com
and then click "TEO Journals". The down load is free!......................... slp/fmrc
Mushroom Books you never knew existed!
Even Mushroom Video!
All work and research done on Mushrooms that produce
controlled substances was done under a Researcher's
Permit, Scheduled ONE, granted by the Federal Drug
Enforcement Administration, issued to S.L. Peele.
The "RED" Catalog lists the World's Largest Mushroom
Spore Print Collection....since 1972.
Go ahead and copy/paste it off for easy reference.
Have fun....Stephen L. Peele, Curator FMRC
"MEDICAL POT MAKING BIG LEAPS AND BOUNDS"
POSTED November 20, 2005
Not really about Mushrooms, but still pretty interesting..................
Also, scroll on down and read: Pot Shrinks Tumors; Government Knew in '74
Cannabis Drug Promising in Rheumatoid Arthritis
By Nick Smith
LONDON (Reuters Health) - A company-sponsored trial of GW Pharma's cannabis-based medicine, Sativex, in rheumatoid arthritis patients, shows the drug works as a painkiller and may also slow disease progression, according to research published online in Rheumatology on Wednesday.
In the first ever controlled trial of a cannabis-based medicine (CBM) in rheumatoid arthritis, significant pain-relieving effects were observed and disease activity was significantly suppressed following Sativex treatment, according to researchers
"Whilst the differences are small and variable across the population, they represent benefits of clinical relevance and show the need for more detailed investigation in this indication," researchers led by the Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, in Bath, England concluded.
Of the 56 patients in the five-week randomized study, 31 were given Sativex daily by fixed delivery oromucosal spray and 27 received placebo.
Each spray of Sativex delivers Tetrahydrocannabinol (2.7mg) and cannabidiol (2.5mg).
Assessment of pain on movement, pain at rest, morning stiffness and sleep quality was measured using a numerical scale, the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the DAS28 measure of disease activity.
The cannabis-based drug produced statistically significant improvements in pain of movement, pain at rest, quality of sleep, and disease activity.
Co-author Philip Robson, Director of Cannaboid Research Institute,
Oxford told APM: "It's a preliminary study but you would have to say it's a promising start. Pain relief was over and above the standard treatment already being taken in a stabilized way.
The so-called DAS scale is supposed to reflect the inflammatory effect of the disease and this improvement might suggest that the drug is affecting the process of the disease, "Although this remains very speculative," Robson added.
The large majority of side effects were mild or moderate and the treatment group showed no serious adverse effects or withdrawals due to side effects.
Three patients (11 percent) withdrew from the placebo group after experiencing adverse events they associated with treatment.
Adverse events reported with CBM included mild dizziness, light-headedness, and dry mouth.
The study was funded by GW pharmaceuticals, which with Bayer, has launched Sativex for multiple sclerosis patients in
Canada but which has so far failed to secure marketing authorization in
Body's Pot-Like Chemicals May Help Curb Pain
Targeting These Compounds May Benefit Chronic Pain Conditions
June 22, 2005 --The body makes compounds that work like marijuana to suppress pain, a new study in the journal Nature shows.
"This study shows for the first time that natural marijuana-like chemicals in the brain have a link to pain suppression," says researcher Daniele Piomelli, PhD, in a news release.
Those chemicals are called cannabinoids. They act like those in marijuana, says Piomelli. He is a pharmacology professor and director to the Center for Drug Discovery at the
Irvine's medical school.
The study was based on rats, not people. However, the findings may lead to new pain treatments, says Piomelli. "If we design chemicals that can tweak the levels of these cannabinoid compounds in the brain, we might be able to boost their normal effects," he says.
Putting Pain on Hold
Pain doesn't always register right away. It can briefly be buffered, say Piomelli and colleagues.
That phenomenon, called stress-induced analgesia, was the focus of their experiment. In stress-induced analgesia, a sudden injury activates certain brain pathways, temporarily suppressing pain, say the researchers.
Their tests showed a rapid rise in the levels of a cannabinoid called 2-AG in male rats' brains after injury.
But 2-AG doesn't hold off pain forever. Ordinarily, it subsides after a short time, ushered away by an enzyme also made by the body.
The study targeted that enzyme, called monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL). With MGL sidelined, 2-AG stayed in the brain for longer than normal. Under those circumstances, stress-induced analgesia increased. In other words, pain stayed at bay longer.
MGL may be a previously unrecognized therapeutic target, write researchers.
"There is no prescription or over-the-counter drug that allows us to manipulate the level of the brain's marijuana-like compounds," says researcher Andrea Hohmann, PhD, in a news release.
A drug based on the new research would likely be more effective and specific than smoked marijuana, says Hohmann. She is a neuroscientist in the
Georgia's psychology department who also worked on the experiment.
The chemical used to inhibit MGL in the study was developed by Piomelli's group. It has been patented by the
Irvine and the Italian universities of Urbino and
Parma, according to the news release.
Pot Smoke: Less Carcinogenic Than Tobacco?
Researchers Say THC May Curb Cancer-Causing Effects of Marijuana Smoke
By Jennifer Warner, WebMD Medical News
Oct. 17, 2005 -- Although tobacco smoke and marijuana smoke are chemically very similar, a new report argues that their cancer-causing effects may be very different.
Both tobacco and cannabis smoke contain the same cancer-causing compounds (carcinogens). Depending on what part of the plant is smoked, marijuana can contain more of these harmful ingredients.
But a recent review of studies on the effects of marijuana and tobacco smoke suggests that the cancer-promoting effects of these ingredients is increased by the tobacco in nicotine and reduced by the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) found in pot.
Previous studies have shown that THC can inhibit carcinogens in mice, and the report suggests it may have the same protective effect against the carcinogens found in smoke in humans. But researchers warn that even if THC lessens the effects of these cancer-causing ingredients, cannabis smoke remains carcinogenic.
The Role of THC
In the article, published in Harm Reduction Journal , researcher Robert Melamede, PhD, of the
Colorado Springs, argues that tobacco smoke and marijuana smoke are not equally cancer-causing.
Research shows that nicotine and THC act on related pathways in the body, but they bind to different receptors to activate these pathways. For example, Melamede says the cells of the lungs are lined with nicotine receptors but do not appear to contain receptors for THC.
He says that may explain why marijuana use has not been linked to lung cancer as cigarette smoking has.
However, Melamede says the effects of cannabis and cannabis-like compounds are complex and sometimes contradictory. The long-term effects of marijuana on an aging population of users are not known; the effects may become similar to what we see with tobacco. Also, marijuana is frequently used in combination with tobacco and the two drugs may interact in yet unknown ways.
Pot Shrinks Tumors; Government Knew in '74
By Raymond Cushing, AlterNet. Posted May 31, 2000.
In 1974 researchers learned that THC, the active chemical in marijuana,
shrank or destroyed brain tumors in test mice. But the DEA quickly shut
down the study and destroyed its results, which were never replicated --
until now. Tools
The term medical marijuana took on dramatic new meaning in February,
2000 when researchers in
Madrid announced they had destroyed incurable
brain tumors in rats by injecting them with THC, the active ingredient
Madrid study marks only the second time that THC has been
administered to tumor-bearing animals; the first was a
investigation 26 years ago. In both studies, the THC shrank or destroyed
tumors in a majority of the test subjects.
Most Americans don't know anything about the
Madrid discovery. Virtually
U.S. newspapers carried the story, which ran only once on the
AP and UPI news wires, on Feb. 29, 2000.
The ominous part is that this isn't the first time scientists have
discovered that THC shrinks tumors. In 1974 researchers at the Medical
College of Virginia, who had been funded by the National Institute of
Health to find evidence that marijuana damages the immune system, found
instead that THC slowed the growth of three kinds of cancer in mice --
lung and breast cancer, and a virus-induced leukemia.
The DEA quickly shut down the
Virginia study and all further
cannabis/tumor research, according to Jack Herer, who reports on the
events in his book, "The Emperor Wears No Clothes." In 1976 President
Gerald Ford put an end to all public cannabis research and granted
exclusive research rights to major pharmaceutical companies, who set out
-- unsuccessfully -- to develop synthetic forms of THC that would
deliver all the medical benefits without the "high."
Madrid researchers reported in the March issue of "Nature Medicine"
that they injected the brains of 45 rats with cancer cells, producing
tumors whose presence they confirmed through magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI). On the 12th day they injected 15 of the rats with THC and 15 with
Win-55,212-2 a synthetic compound similar to THC. "All the rats left
untreated uniformly died 12-18 days after glioma (brain cancer) cell
inoculation ... Cannabinoid (THC)-treated rats survived significantly
longer than control rats. THC administration was ineffective in three
rats, which died by days 16-18. Nine of the THC-treated rats surpassed
the time of death of untreated rats, and survived up to 19-35 days.
Moreover, the tumor was completely eradicated in three of the treated
rats." The rats treated with Win-55,212-2 showed similar results.
The Spanish researchers, led by Dr. Manuel Guzman of
University, also irrigated healthy rats' brains with large doses of THC
for seven days, to test for harmful biochemical or neurological effects.
They found none.
"Careful MRI analysis of all those tumor-free rats showed no sign of
damage related to necrosis, edema, infection or trauma ... We also
examined other potential side effects of cannabinoid administration. In
both tumor-free and tumor-bearing rats, cannabinoid administration
induced no substantial change in behavioral parameters such as motor
coordination or physical activity. Food and water intake as well as body
weight gain were unaffected during and after cannabinoid delivery.
Likewise, the general hematological profiles of cannabinoid-treated rats
were normal. Thus, neither biochemical parameters nor markers of tissue
damage changed substantially during the 7-day delivery period or for at
least 2 months after cannabinoid treatment ended."
Guzman's investigation is the only time since the 1974
that THC has been administered to live tumor-bearing animals. (The
Spanish researchers cite a 1998 study in which cannabinoids inhibited
breast cancer cell proliferation, but that was a "petri dish" experiment
that didn't involve live subjects.)
In an email interview for this story, the
Madrid researcher said he had
heard of the
Virginia study, but had never been able to locate
literature on it. Hence, the Nature Medicine article characterizes the
new study as the first on tumor-laden animals and doesn't cite the 1974
"I am aware of the existence of that research. In fact I have attempted
many times to obtain the journal article on the original investigation
by these people, but it has proven impossible." Guzman said.
In 1983 the Reagan/Bush Administration tried to persuade American
universities and researchers to destroy all 1966-76 cannabis research
work, including compendiums in libraries, reports Jack Herer, who
states, "We know that large amounts of information have since
Guzman provided the title of the work -- "Antineoplastic activity of
cannabinoids," an article in a 1975 Journal of the National Cancer
Institute -- and this writer obtained a copy at the University of
California medical school library in Davis and faxed it to Madrid.
The summary of the
Virginia study begins, "Lewis lung adenocarcinoma
growth was retarded by the oral administration of tetrahydrocannabinol
(THC) and cannabinol (CBN)" -- two types of cannabinoids, a family of
active components in marijuana. "Mice treated for 20 consecutive days
with THC and CBN had reduced primary tumor size."
The 1975 journal article doesn't mention breast cancer tumors, which
featured in the only newspaper story ever to appear about the 1974 study
-- in the Local section of the Washington Post on August 18, 1974. Under
the headline, "Cancer Curb Is Studied," it read in part:
"The active chemical agent in marijuana curbs the growth of three kinds
of cancer in mice and may also suppress the immunity reaction that
causes rejection of organ transplants, a Medical College of Virginia
team has discovered." The researchers "found that THC slowed the growth
of lung cancers, breast cancers and a virus-induced leukemia in
laboratory mice, and prolonged their lives by as much as 36 percent."
Guzman, writing from
Madrid, was eloquent in his response after this
writer faxed him the clipping from the Washington Post of a quarter
century ago. In translation, he wrote:
"It is extremely interesting to me, the hope that the project seemed to
awaken at that moment, and the sad evolution of events during the years
following the discovery, until now we once again draw back the
veil‚ over the anti-tumoral power of THC, twenty-five years later.
Unfortunately, the world bumps along between such moments of hope and
long periods of intellectual castration."
News coverage of the
Madrid discovery has been virtually nonexistent in
this country. The news broke quietly on Feb. 29, 2000 with a story that
ran once on the UPI wire about the Nature Medicine article. This writer
stumbled on it through a link that appeared briefly on the Drudge Report
web page. The New York Times, Washington Post and Los Angeles Times all
ignored the story, even though its newsworthiness is indisputable: a
benign substance occurring in nature destroys deadly brain tumors.
Raymond Cushing is a journalist, musician and filmmaker. This article
was named by Project Censored as a "Top Censored Story of 2000."